Colonisation of South Africa (Boer people and republics: South African…
Colonisation of South Africa
British at the Cape and European exploration of the interior
The Royal Geographical society later awarded livingstone a gold medal for his discovery of lake Ngami in the desert
Colonel Robert Jacob Gordon of the Dutch East Company was the first European to explore parts of the interior
In 1806 the British outlawed the use of the Dutch language to convert it to the British language and culture
The Europeans settlers and the Xhosa had competition for land in the form of cattle raids from 1779
Zulu militarism and expansion
They change the clan system to kingdoms
in 1820 aw a time immense upheaval relating to the military expansion of the zulu kingdom
Shaka wanted the power so he built his own army by breaking other clans traditions by putting armies under his own control
in 1818 Ngunitribes in Zululand became a "Militaristic kingdom" under the force of Shaka kaSenzangakhona (son of the chief of the zulu clan.
Zulu "People" Where part of the Nguni Tribe and was originally a small clan, Founded in 1709 by Zulu kaNtombela
Today it is known as the KwaZulu-Natal
Boer people and republics: South African republic, Free State republic and Natalia
Eventually, in the 1830s large numbers of Boers migrated in what came to be known as the greats trek.
Similarly, schools, justice and trade up to the arrival of the british, were all managed in the Dutch language. The language law caused friction, disgust and dissatisfaction.
After 1806, a number of Dutch-speaking inhabitants of the Cape Colony trekked the inland, first in small groups.
Another reason for Dutch-speaking white famers trekking away from the Cape was the abolition of slavery by the British government on Emancipation Day, 1 December 1838
The farmers had invested large amounts of capital in slaves. Owners who had purchased slaves on credit or put them up as surety against loans faced financial ruin.
Britain had allocated the sum of 1200000 British Pounds as compensation to the Dutch settlers, on condition the Dutch farmers had to lodge their claims in Britain as well as the fact that the value of the slaves was many times the allocated amount.
This caused further dissatisfaction among the Dutch settlers.
The South African Republic is often referred to as The Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal
Cape Colony, Natal and Griqua People
As Cape Prime Minister, Rhodes curtailed the multi-racial franchise, and his expansionist policies set the stage for the Second Boer War
By the end of 1847, nearly all the Boers left their former republic, which the British renamed Natal. The role of the Boer settlers was replaced by subsidised British immigrants of whom 5,000 arrived between 1849 and 1851
In 1854, the Cape of Good Hope was granted its first locally elected legislature, the Cape Parliament.
in 1843 the SS Truro arrived in Durban Harbour with over 300 Indians. Over the next 50 years 150,000 more indentured Indian servants and labourers arrived, building the base for what would become the largest Indian community outside India
RIver Sovereignty who in 1848 mounted an abortive rebellion at Boomplaats, where the Boers were defeated by a detachment of the Cape Mounted Rifles
By the late 1700s the Cape Colony population had grown to include a large number of mixed race so-called "coloureds". Members of this community formed the core of what would become the Griqua people.
Between 1847 and 1854, Sir Harry Smith, governor and high commissioner of the Cape Colony, annexed territories far to the north of original British and Dutch settlement.
The Griqua people started trekking northward into the interior, through what is today named Northern Cape Province. The trek of the Griquas to escape the influence of the Cape Colony has been described as "one of the great epics of the 19th century.
Cape Frontier Wars: Wars against the Xhosa and the Zulu
In early South Africa, European notions of national boundaries and land ownership had no counterparts in African political culture
In the southeastern part of the country, the boers and the xhosa clashed along the great fish river, and in 1779 the first of nine frontier wars erupted.
He appealed to the british for help against ndlambe,who retaliated in 1819 during the fifth frontier war by attacking the british colonial town of grahamstown.
For nearly 100 years, the Xhosa fought the settlers
The boers killed about three thousand zulu warriors in a clash known historically as the battle of blood river
In 1818 differences between two Xhosa leaders, Ndlambe and Ngqika, ended in Ngqika's defeat, but the British continued to recognise Ngqika as the paramount chief.
He was subsequently captured and imprisoned on Robben Island.
After this war the British attempted unsuccessfully to declare the area between the Great Fish and the Keiskamma rivers neutral territory.
Wars with the Basotho, Ndebele and Bebedi
In 1854 the British handed over territory to the Boers through the signing of the Sand River Convention.
The Orange Free state tried unsuccessfully to capture the Moshoeshoe mountain
As punishment to the Basotho, Sir George Cathcart deployed troops to the Mohokare river and the Moshoeshoe had to pay a fine. When they did not pay the fine war broke out on the Berea Plateau in 1852.
The Moshoeshoe faced starvation and signed a peace treaty on 15th October 1858 and conflict remained unresolved.
The British decided to make a boundary line named the Warden Line which split the British and Basotho terriories.
War broke out again in 1865 between the British Empire and Moshoeshoe
The country was named Basutolandand and got names again to Lesotho
In 1845 a treaty was signed between the British and the Moshoeshoe which declared the white settlement area.
Discovery of diamonds and gold
The wealth from Kimberley diamond mining, having effectively tripled, so now it allow them to expand its boundaries and railways to the north. cheap African labour was the central to the success of the Kimberley diamond mining.
The decision was made to start importing Chinese indentured labourers who were prepared to work for far less wages than local African labourers.
In 1872 since it was no longer dependent on the British Treasury so allowing it to be fully self-governing in similar fashion to the federation of Canada, New Zealand and some of the Australian State
The working environment of the mines, meanwhile, as one historian has described it, was "dangerous, brutal,and onerous" ,and therefore unpopular among local back Africnas.
There is no conclusive as to
By the 1870 and 1880's the mines in Kimberley were producing 95% of the worlds diamonds
Within two years of gold being discovered on the Witwatersrand, four mining finance houses had been established.
The first diamonds were discovered between 1866 and 1867 in the Orange River. But by 1869 diamonds were found at any stream or river in hard rock, called blue ground
There is no conclusive evidence as to who first discovered gold or the manner in which it was originally discovered in the late 19th century on the Witwatersrand of the Transvaal.
The Dutch East India Company established a permanent settlement in the Cape. A small VOC expedition under the command of Jan van Riebeeck reached Table Bay 6 April 1652
Had no intention of setting up a colony - only wanted a base camp to service passing ships and sailors could stock up on fresh food - meat, fruit, vegetables etc.
They imported Dutch farmers, known as free burghers, to establish farms to supply passing ships and the growing VOC settlement
The free burghers increased in numbers and expanded their farms further north and east into the territory of the Khokhoi
Majority of the burghers were Dutch but some were German and in 1688 French Huguenots arrived (avoiding religious persecution)
The VOC started to import slaves from the Dutch colonies in Indonesia. Eventually made the Khoikhoi indentured servants.
The offspring of the white and slave unions became part of the Afrikaans speaking white population.