How Learning Occurs: Acquisition of Knowledge (Motivational (Goal-setting …
How Learning Occurs: Acquisition of Knowledge
Short & Long-term memory
Components: Central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketch pad (Baddeley, 1992)
Executive: Attentional controller (Baddeley, 1992)
Loop: Store that serves as a backup system for comprehension of speech under taxing conditions but that may be less important with simple, clearly presented material (Baddeley, 1992)
Pad: Sets up & manipulates visuospatial imagery (Baddeley, 1992)
4-5 item "chunk" span
Novice vs. Expert
Young vs. Old
Linked to language comprehension and reasoning (Baddeley, 1992) as well as problem-solving and planning (Cowan, 2010)
Students who believe they will experience difficulty comprehending material are likely to hold a low self-efficacy for learning it; Self-efficacy leads to mental effort
"People's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances (Bandura, 1986, p. 31)"
Information acquired from performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, forms of persuasion, and psychological indexes is cognitively appraised and informs self-efficacy beliefs (Schunk, 1991 p. 209).
Observing goal process (noticing progress) substantiates self-efficacy (Schunk, 1991 p. 213)
Motivational benefits depend on proximity, specificity, and difficulty of goals
Setting goals may help with goal commitment (SMART goals)
Expectancy-Value Theory (Eccles, 1983)
Expectancies for success
Personal influences: behavioral control, self-regulative knowledge (of learning strategies or standards), declarative/propositional knowledge, procedural knowledge, plans
Behavioral influences: self-reactions (determinants are fractal to determinants of self-regulated learning), self-observations, self-judgments
One is self-regulated "to the degree that they are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally active participants in their own learning process" (Zimmerman, 1989, p. 329).
Self-regulated learning must involve the use of specified strategies to achieve academic goals on the basis of self-efficacy perceptions (Zimmerman, 1989).
Self-regulated learning strategies: "actions and processes directed at acquiring information or skill that involve agency, purpose, and instrumentality perceptions by learners" (Zimmerman, 1989, p. 329).
Self-efficacy: "perceptions about one's capabilities to organize and implement actions necessary to attain designated performance of skill for specific tasks" (Zimmerman, 1989, p. 329).
Identity-based motivation (Oysterman & Markus, 1998)
People act in identity-congruent ways, identity is constructed dynamically and within environmental contexts
If a behavior feels identity-congruent, difficulty will be interpreted as meaningful (Oysterman, 2007). Is the difficulty "worth it"?
Identity shapes academic engagement and relations with academic choices. Context clues and categories influence motivation and imagined futures (Elmore & Oysterman, 2012). With higher motivation comes better learning.
Verbal persuasion, inactive outcomes, modeling
Self-observation, self-judgment, and self-reaction (Bandura, 1986; Zimmerman, 1989)