Alternative to the Medical Model (Behaviourist Explanation (OPERANT…
Alternative to the Medical Model
Mental illness occur as a result of maladaptive learning.
associate anxiety or fear with a neutral stimulus.
Maintains the fear learnt through classical conditioning.
The fear is reinforced by the individual taking steps to avoid the phobia, therefore being rewarded by reducing anxiety.
Believes that behaviour is learnt through your environment via conditioning.
Mental illness caused by faulting thinking processes. The problem relates to how a person perceives and thinks about a situation.
Can be referred to as a cognitive distortion, leads to a person making errors or biases in the ways they think.
One bad experience in the past, then deciding that if in the same situation it will happen again. eg. had a panic attack in the cinema, believe that it will happen again in the same situation.
Thinking of the worst possible outcome of a situation: completely out of perspective. eg. what if i faint on stage? Then I'll fall off, bang my head, have amnesia and wont be able to complete the drama course...
Behaviour is caused by unconscious processes and early childhood experiences.
Mental illness caused by an imbalance between the 3 components of personality.
ID: unconscious set of instincts we are born with. Selfish, seeks satisfaction
EGO: more rational. Seeks to satisfy the ID without upsetting SUPEREGO. Develops a sense that you cant always get what you want.
SUPEREGO: driven by morality. Develops through the process of socialisation.
DEPRESSION may be caused by an overactive superego due to it making them feel sever feelings of guilty.
OR mental illness caused by unresolved early childhood experiences, such as grief, which has been repressed into the unsconscous mind causing the individual to continually re-experience the feelings.
The individual re-experiences the repressed feelings, ultimately leading to depression. this is often linked to the use of defence mechanisms as they cause unconscious pressure to influence behaviour.
OR fixation within psychosexual stages of development
Little Hans fixated in the Phallic stage
Non-Biological Treatment: Systematic Desensitisation for Phobias
Szasz: The Myth of Mental Illness