Behavior, Biomes, and Populations (Ch.53 Populations (Population Factors…
Behavior, Biomes, and Populations
Ch.51 Animal Behavior
: is the inherent inclination of a living organism towards a particular complex behavior. Ex Baby turtles hatching and going to the sea or Grasping reflex in babies.
Fixed Action Pattern
: an instinctive behavioral sequence that is relatively invariant within the species and almost inevitably runs to completion. Ex: Geese sit on their eggs and pull eggs back into nest.
: a form of learning in which a very young animal fixes its attention on the first object with which it has visual, auditory, or tactile experience and thereafter follows that object. Ex:
: any learning process in which a new response becomes associated with a particular stimulus. Ex: Dogs learning that a stimulus, such as the ringing of a bell, leads to a reward, or food.
Trial and Error (Operant Conditioning):
is a fundamental method of problem solving. It is characterized by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success, or until the agent stops trying. Ex: Dogs attempting to learn how to get lout of its kennel or get into a cabinet with snacks or treats inside.
: is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations. Ex: A dog ignoring all the cars outside, but perks up when it hears your car/ owners car.
: hat occurs through observing the behavior of others. Ex: Babies learning to walk , younger sibling learning what not to do due to seeing older sibling being punished.
: is a type of learning or problem solving that happens all-of-a-sudden through understanding the relationships of various parts of a problem rather than through trial and error. Ex: It often includes having an understanding of a cause and effect relationship, namely if you do "A" then "B" will happen. This is also called the " AHA" moment.
Reasons for Animal Behavior
: This is a reason or motivation for animal behavior because animals want to eat, so they need to behave or learn how to behave in a way that allows them to eat and survive.
: This is a reason or motivation for animals behavior because all animals want to do is eat and reproduce before they die. Therefore they need to behave in a way that allows them to have sex.
3) Avoid Predators
: This is a reason mainly so that the animal can survive long enough to do what is stated above.
4) Raise Young:
This is a reason because they want to be able to show the babies how to behave so that they may survive to eat and reproduce as well.
1) Adaptive Behavior:
this behavior evolves in a way that it gives the next generation an adaptation to there environment to help them survive. Ex: A squirrel uses an adaptive behavior to help protect itself.
2) Learned Behavior
: this behavior evolves in a way that it isn't adaptive, but it is learned and passed on through that animals family. This is then taught from the animal that learned the certain behavior to its offspring. Ex: A dog showing its puppies where the snacks/treats are.
Ch. 52 Ecology
Factors for Environments
: How high or below sea level the ground is.
: How much rain or water the ground has.
: The angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator, or of a celestial object north or south of the celestial equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.
:an effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force (the Coriolis force ) acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation. Ex: On the earth, the effect tends to deflect moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern and is important in the formation of cyclonic weather systems.
An area having relatively little precipitation due to the effect of a topographic barrier, especially a mountain range, that causes the prevailing winds to lose their moisture on the windward side, causing the leeward side to be dry. Ex: Nevada
Tilt of the Earth
: The Earth's axis is tilted 23.5 degrees from the plane of its orbit around the sun. But this tilt changes. During a cycle that averages about 40,000 years, the tilt of the axis varies between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees. Because this tilt changes, the seasons as we know them can become exaggerated.
: Near equator, very wet , hot and humid climate/ temperature, and lots of plants, microorganisms, birds and lots of exotic animals ( gorillas, leopards , etc)
: can be in anywhere up and down the latitude line, very dry, depending on where it is either hot , freezing or moderate temps, Organism like insects, very little plants, cactus, Polar Bears, penguins, Camels, etc.
: Near equator, wet, hot temperatures, Organisms like Elephants, zebras, rhinos, trees and plants scattered around. (The Lion King)
: near equator, dry, hot, Organisms like coyotes, lizards, deer, and few plants .
: above the equator, wet, temperate climate and has seasons, organism like bison, wolves, prairie dogs etc. With a lot of grass and fewer trees.
Northern Coniferous Forest
: below the poles, precipitation ranges from wet to dry, sub-polar temperatures, organisms like bears, elk, and wolves with lots of trees(Pine cone Trees) and plants.
Temperate Broadleaf Forests
: Above the equator, very wet, and temperate/ mild temperatures, organisms like deer, raccoons squirrels etc with lots of trees and plants/ shrubs.
: At the poles, ranges from very wet to dry, polar temperatures, organisms like reindeer, polar bears, arctic foxes, very few trees and plants.
an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Can contain both freshwater and saltwater( Dead Sea).
Wetlands are always associated with land. They are the barrier between land and water. The wetland biome includes swamps, bogs, and marshes.
are bodies of flowing water that move in one direction. They get their starts at headwaters, which may be springs, snowmelts or even lakes, and then travel all the way to their mouths, usually another water channel or the ocean.
: is a partially enclosed body of water formed where freshwater from rivers and streams flows into the ocean, mixing with the salty sea water. Estuaries and the lands surrounding them are places of transition from land to sea, and from fresh to salt water.
: also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide
Ocean Pelagic Zones:
is sometimes called the open-ocean zone and can be contrasted with water that is near the coast or on the continental shelf. In other contexts, coastal water not near the bottom is still said to be in the pelagic zone. Ex where deep ocean whales live.
: he coral reef biome is located within the ocean but is separate from the ocean biome. It is located in a shallow, clear portion of the ocean in mostly tropical areas. These areas include the coasts of East Africa, South India, Australia, Florida, the Caribbean, and Brazil.
Marine Benthic Zones
: s the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos, e.g. the benthic invertebrate community, including crustaceans and polychaetes.
Population Factors (Density and Dispersion)
:Of all the climatic factors the elements of rainfall and temperature play the most important role in determining the population of an area.
: Availability of water plays a significant role in determining the population of a given area. Water is the basic necessity for several purposes including irrigation, industries, transport and domestic affairs.
: Depending on how much resources are available determines how much the population the area can hold because without resources the population wont last long.
: Growth of population is directly proportional to the development of transport facilities. If the transportation is trash them there is no movement of the people causing low dispersion.
:Urbanization and population concentration go hand-in-hand and are closely related to each other. All the urban cities are marked by high density of population. People love the city and are attracted to it therefore effecting the dispersion rates and high density of people.
plain areas encourage higher density of population as compared to mountain regions. The steep slope in mountain areas restrict the availability of land for agriculture, development of transport, industries and other economic activities which may tend to discourage concentration of population and its proper growth.
Models of Pop. Growth
: When resources are unlimited, populations exhibit exponential growth, resulting in a J-shaped curve. Ex: The U.S.A
: When resources are limited, populations exhibit logistic growth.In logistic growth, population expansion decreases as resources become scarce. Ex: some African countries
Factors That affect Pop. Growth
: Affects pop. growth b/c then organisms have to fight or compete to find their resources needed to survive.
Affects population b/c it can wipe out a huge chunk of the pop. if unable to treat the disease or stop it from infecting others. Ex: The Bubonic Plague
: Affects populations b/c if over predation happens then the population then might go extinct. Ex: Hunting endangered species or animals hunting easy prey that are unable to reproduce fast enough or even just simple predator vs. prey affects the population.
: Affects pop. b/c without their territory then they may not be able to survive causing the pop. to change.
: Are refered to together as fecundity, or the number of offspring an individual produces in its lifetime. These affect pop. growth b/c if the animals aren't having enough babies the pop. isn't going to grow.
Affects pop. growth b/c if the animals drink or get effected by the toxic waste it can cause harm leading to pop. growh issues.
Affect pop. growth b/c these things can instantly wipe out a huge chunk of a population easily. Ex; Volcanoes, hurricanes, forest fires, and drought.
Loss of Food Supply:
Affects pop. growth b/c if the animals dont get the food or nutrients they need to survive they will die maybe not immediately due to other potential food sources,but it will cause more competition and will have to find another food source.
Human Population Growth
. In 5000 bc there was about .005 billion people in the world until 1804 we hit the 1 billion mark.
. Then from 1804 to 2011 the pop. jumped to 7 billion people
From 7 billion people we currently stand at about 7.3 billion.
The countries with the highest populations: China, India, and the U.S
The Countries with the lowest pop.: Are mainly African Countries
We are above the carrying capacity of the Earth currently and the population growth is a problem until we find a way to improve the production of resources. What we are currently trying to is look towards science for solutions and ideas on how to create more resources or improve the things we have currently.