Ecology (Chapter 53: Population Ecology (Immigration, Emigration, and…
Chapter 53: Population Ecology
Density: the number of individuals per unit of area or volume.
Dispersion: pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population.
Increases constantly and then levels out at K.
Year, birth and death rate, and size of population.
Ecological Footprint: amount of aggrate land needed to sustain a population
Immigration, Emigration, and Metapopulatios
People grow based on these factors.
Immigration is the amount of people moving into a country.
Emigration: the amount of people exiting a country.
Metapopulations: linked population.
Humans are beyond carrying capacity. They are overpopulating and ruining the biosphere.
It is expected to decline, but its not happening. Based on trends and more people coming in it will not decline.
Chapter 51: Animal Behavior
Born with it
Ex: Hog Nose Snake spits and scares you
Fixed Action Pattern
Series of actions you take to complete something.
Ex: Grey lack goose pulling an egg into body.
Follow care takers.
Ex: Ducks and mom.
Putting something else to something else.
Ex: Using stories to learn a concept.
Trial and Error
Try different things and see what works.
Ex: Crows and quarters.
Same stimuli over and over again until you ignore it.
Ex: Prairie dogs and snakes.
Seeing something and learning it through observation.
Ex: When an older sibling does something constantly and the younger sibling picks up on it.
Understanding the relationships of different parts.
Ex: Monkey and a banana, uses its surroundings to retrieve banana.
Reasons for behavior
Find food and water.
Ex: Animals in a Savanna where resources are limited.
Interact with other groups.
Ex: Predator/prey, parasite/host, symbiosis.
Ex: Camouflage for certain animals.
Ex: Survival of the fittest-make as many babies as possible.
Behaviors are controlled by genes and stimuli.
Genes can evolve if natural selection allows it.
Stimuli do not evolve, they grow as the animal grows and it varies.
Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere
When it rains and there is a mountain it causes one side to be dry and the side that gets the bulk of the rain is wet and forestry.
Tilt of the Earth
Earth tilts at 23.5 degrees and gives us seasons which effect the organisms living there.
Locations: Mexico, parts of South America, and parts of Africa
Temperature: 25-29 degrees Celsius.
Precipitation: 200-400cm annually.
Organisms: canopy, sub-canopy, shrubs, and herbs. Insects spiders, arthropods, amphibians, birds, reptiles, and mammals.
Locations: Middle Africa, middle Asia, and lower Australia.
Precipitation: Generally less than 30cm per year.
Temperature: hot-exceed 50 degrees Celsius. Cold: -30 degrees Celsius.
Organisms: cacti or euphrobes, deep rooted shrubs and herbs. Snakes, lizards, scorpions, ants, beetles, migratory birds, resident birds, and seed-eating rodents.
Location: certain parts of Africa, certain parts South America, certain parts of Australia, and a small portion of Asia.
Precipitation: 35-45cm per year.
Temperature: 24-29 degrees Celsius.
Organisms: scattered trees-thorny and small leaves. Large plant eating mammals, wildebeests, zebras, lions, hyenas, and termites.
Locations: Small part of California, small part of Chile, Spain, and Southern France.
Temperature: 10-12 degrees Celsius, summer can reach 30 degrees Celsius, and in the day exceeds 40 degrees Celsius.
Organisms: shrubs and small trees, deer, goats, amphibians, birds, reptiles, and insects.
Locations: South Africa, Hungary, Argentina, Uruguay, and Russia.
Precipitation: 30-100cm (seasonally).
Temperature: -10 degrees Celsius, summers-30 degrees Celsius.
Organisms: grasses and Forbes, tall grass prairies. Bison, wild horses, and burrowing mammals.
Northern Coniferous Forest
Locations: North America, Eurasia, and edge of Arctic tundra.
Precipitation: 30-70cm. US Pacific NW receives 300cm.
Temperature: winters cold, summers hot, -50 degrees Celsius to 20 degrees Celsius.
Organisms: cone-bearing trees, conifers, migratory birds, moose, brown bears, and Siberian tigers.
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
Locations: Northern hemisphere, Chile, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.
Precipitation: 70-100cm annually.
Temperature: zero degrees Celsius to thirty-five degrees Celsius.
Organisms: canopy, shrub, under-story, mammals, birds, reptiles.
Precipitation: 20-60 cm annually, and 100cm in alpine.
Temperature: -30 degrees Celsius to 10 degrees Celsius.
Organisms: herbaceous, mosses, grasses, caribou, reindeer, wolves, foxes, and bears.
Standing bodies of water
Salinity concentration, oxygen concentration, nutrient content vary from season to season.
Inundated by water either all the time or flood occasionally.
High organic production, periodically low in oxygen, filter dissolved nutrients and pollution.
Streams & Rivers
High speed and high volume of flow. cold clear, swift, and turbulent.
Salt concentrate increases from headwaters to mouth. Headwaters are rich in oxygen.
Periodically submerged, and exposed to tides.
Oxygen and nutrients are generally high.
Calcium Carbonate, shallow, tropic, and photic zone.
High oxygen, high inputs of fresh water and nutrients.
Oceanic Pelagic Zone
Open blue water, wind and ocean currents.
Oxygen high, nutrients low, thermally stratified.
Marine Benthic Zone
Seafloor below the surface waters of coastal zones.
Oxygen sufficient and organic enrichment.
Transition between rivers and sea.
Salinity varies, nutrients make these.