Animal Behavior (Types of Behavior (Innate (genetically programmed, reflex…
Types of Behavior
genetically programmed, reflex
baby turtles will automatically go to sea
Fixed Action Pattern
behavior the animal is compelled to engage in
birds will care for other eggs put in their nest
happens during critical period
imprint on the chemical smell
training, learn to associate things
bears raiding bird feeders
Trial and Error learning
Teaching, operant conditioning
crow vending machine
Same stimuli repeatedly.. ignore after a while
prairie dogs and humans
Learn by watching others
Learning by problem solving
Motivations for animal behavior
Factors that affect poulation
Emigration- moving out
Logistic growth flattens out
Exponential growth goes up
Factors that affect growth
Immigration and Emigration
A birth and death rate that does not change with population density is independent
natural disasters, drought
A birth and death rate that does change with population density is density dependent
availability of food, predation, disease, and migration
dramatically increased in the late 1800s
World population reached:
1 billion 1804
2 billion 1927 123 years later
3 billion 1960 33 years later
4 billion 1974 14 years later
5 billion 1987 13 years later
6 billion 1999 12 years later
Fully developed country ecological footprint ins 25 acres
Third world country ecological footprint 2.5 acres
5 earths needed for everyone to have 25 acres
There are not enough resources to go around
the impact of a person on the environment, the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources.
Behaviors evolve by..
Factors that produce Different Environments
contributes to the circular motion of the wind around pressure systems which move weather patterns
Rain Shadow effect
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind
Rain is blocked
Tilt of the earth
the equator is the hottest part of the planet is because its surface is perpendicular to the sun's rays.
At higher latitudes the same amount of solar radiation is spread over a larger area, due to Earth's spherical shape
Tropical Rain Forest
near the equator
hot all year round, 200-400 centuimeters (80-100 inches) of rain a year
greatest diversity of any biome; vines, orchids, ferns, and a wide variety of trees
more species of insects, reptiles, and amphibians than anyplace else; monkeys, other small and large mammals, including in some places elephants, all sorts of colorful birds
generally very hot days, cool nights; precipitation less than 10 inches a year
poor in animal and plant decay products but often rich in minerals
none to cacti, yuccas, bunch grasses, shrubs, and a few trees
rodents, snakes, lizards, tortoises, insects, and some birds. The Sahara in Africa is home to camels, gazelles, antelopes, small foxes, snakes, lizards, and gerbils
equiltorial and sub-equatorial regions
Warm year round. Precip is 30-50 cm annualy
many types of grasses in the savanna, such as Rhodes grass, red oats grass and lemon grass
can support high densities of grazing animals. species that live in herds, including zebras and antelopes, and the predators that prey on them, like lions and cheetahs.
Low precip 30-50 cm
Seasonal temp.. avg for summer is 30 C winter is 10 C
poison oak, scrub oak, Yucca Wiple and other shrubs, trees and cacti.
coyotes, jack rabbits, mule deer, alligator lizards, horned toads, praying mantis, honey bee and ladybugs.
midlatitudes, interiors of continents
cool in winter, hot in summer; 25-75 cm of precip a year
mostly grasses and small shrubs, some trees near sources of water
american grasslands include prairie dogs, foxes, small mammals, snakes, insects, varous birds. African grasslands includeelephants, lions, zebras, giraffes.
Northern Coniferous Forest
Temperature 30°F to 80°F
Rainfall 50 inches or more
Soil poor, often rocky
, trees like the spruce, evergreen, pine, aspen, jeffery pine, fir and, of course the conifer
moose, snakes, eagles, bob cats, geese, bunnies, lynx, frogs, beaver,etc..
Temperate Broad leaf forest
relatively mild summers and cold winters, 76-127 centimeters (30-50 inches) of precipitation a year
rich topsoil over clay
hardwoods such as oaks, beeches, hickories, maples
wolves, deer, bears, and a wide variety of small mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and insects.
high northern latitudes
very cold, harsh, and long winters; short and cool summers; 10-25 centimeters (4-10 inches) of precipitation a year
nutrient-poor, permafrost layer a few inches down
grasses, wildflowers, mosses, small shrubs
musk oxen, migrating caribuou, arctic foxes, weasels, snowshoe hares, owls, hawks, various rodents, occasional polar bears
These range from a few square kilometres to thousands of square kilometres
Limited species diversity
Salinity, nutrient content vary between lakes
Oligotropich lakes are nutrient poor
eutropich lakes are nutrient rich
Rivers and Streams
These are flowing bodies of water that are found almost everywhere. They start in areas such as mountains, springs and lakes and move to the "mouth" such as the ocean.
saltiness increases towards mouth.
Wetlands are areas of standing water that support aquatic plants. Marshes, swamps and bogs are all considered wetlands.
soil and water are low in dissolved oxygen
Filter nutrients and pollutants
transition between river and sea
salinity varies spaitially
Salinity also varies with the rise and fall of tides
where most oceans meet the land. Sometimes it is submerged and at other times it is exposed
Oxygen and nutrient levels are high and renewed with each tide
Ocean Pelagic Zone
waters further from the land, known as the open ocean
oxygen levels high
Nutrient levels vary between seasons
distributed in warm shallow waters.
require high oxygen levels
obtains nutrients through photosynthesis
Marine benthic zone
area below the pelagic zone, but does not include the very depths of the ocean.
Just enough oxygen for life