Chapter 4: Language (Gender and Language (Men and women are socialized to…
Chapter 4: Language
Gender and Language
Men and women are socialized to communicate differently. True
Metaphorically speaking, men are from Mars, and women are from Venus. False
Men and women are hardwired to communicate differently. Partly true, but less than many people assume
Women talk more than men. False
Women's speech is typically powerless, and men's is more powerful. False
Men and women talk about different things. True sometimes
Men don't show their feelings. Partly true, partly false
Where romance is concerned, it's complicated. Undeniable.
Women are emotionally expressive. Often true
Men and women communicate for different reasons. Often true
A deliberately vague statement that can be interpreted in more than one way
: A mild or indirect term or expression used in place of a more direct but less pleasant one
: Language that conveys an attitude rather than simply offering an objective description
Confusing Facts and Opinions
: A statement based on the speaker's beliefs
: A statement that can be verified as being true or false
Confusing Facts and Inferences
: A conclusion arrived at from an nterpretation of evidence
The Language of Misunderstandings
Overly Abstract Language
: An account that refers only to observable phenomena
What behaviors are involved?
Who is involved?
In what circumstances does the behavior occur?
: Language that lacks specificity or does not refer to observable behavior or other sensory data
: A range of more- to less-abstract terms describing an event or object
Slang and Jargon
: Specialized vocabulary used as a kind of shorthand by people with common backgrounds and experience
: Language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar coculture or other group
: Words that gain their meaning by comparison
: Words that have more than one dictionary definition
Useful strategies for reducing equivocal misunderstandings.
If you are in a multicultural context, ask the receiver to verify their understanding of your message, especially if their nonverbal suggest confusion.
If you are the sender, use lower-level abstractions to clarify the meaning of equivocal terms.
If you are the receiver, double check the sender’s meaning of equivocal terms.
The Nature of Language
Language is Symbolic
Not all linguistic symbols are spoken or written words. Sign language, as "spoken" by most Deaf people, is symbolic in nature and not the pantomime it might seem to nonsigners.
Symbols are more than just labels: They are the way we experience the world.
The naming process operates in the virtually every situation.
Language Is Rule Governed
Language contain several types of rules
Rules that govern how people use language in everyday interaction
The process by which members of a marginalized group reframe the meaning of a term that has historically been used in a derogatory way
Each person 's self-concept
The episode in which the comment occurs
Rules that governs the meaning of language as opposed to its structure
The peacemaking meeting schedule for today has been canceled due to a conflict
: Rules that govern the ways in which symbols can be arranged as opposed to the meanings of those symbols
From my own experience:
In my country, to teenagers, when using social media such as chatting with each other, we have created "teencode" which means using our original language, but being informal and shorten the words so as to save time and to bemore unique.
Have you the cookies brought? (German order)
Technology ha spawned versions of English with their own syntactic rules. (@ =at, cause=cuz, tomorrow=tmr, TTLT= talk to you later, etc.
: Linguistic rules governing how sounds are combined to form words
From my own experience:
He commented a really impressive comment on Facebook
He could lead if he would get the lead out
A farm can produce produce
The dump was so full it had to refuse refuse
The present is a good time to present the present
Meanings Are In People, Not Words
The spoken word belongs half to the one who speaks it and half to the one who hears
As with symbols, the place to look for meaning in language isn't in the words themselves but rather in the way people make sense of them. This model show that there's only an indirect relationship-indicated by a broken line-between a word and what it claims to represent.
: Informal, implied interpretation for words and phrases that reflect the people, cultures, emotion and situations involved
: A collection of symbols, governed by rules and used to convey message between individuals
: Formally recognized definitions for words, as in those found in a dictionary
: A version of the same language that includes substantially different words and meanings
The Power of Language
Language Shapes Values, Attitudes, and Beliefs
: Speech style - and the credibility associated with it - also influence perception. Scholarly speaking is a good example: Even an impostor who sounds smart and speaks well may impress an audience.
From my experience
: Having the same story to audience, however, the meaning and feeling of audience after listening might be slightly or significantly different depending on the narrators. It will be more impressive with the creditable narrators, who have more communicating skill and more alluringness than the another one.
: At the most fundamental level, some research suggests that even the phonetic sound of person's name affects the way we regard him or her, at least when we don't have other information available. Names also play a role in shaping and reinforcing indentity
From my own experience:
In my country, the way for parents to have their children' name often come up with the meaningful things. For example: My name is Tran, which means something really precious and valuable in Vietnamese. It shows that I am very important to my parents.
Language Reflects Values, Attitudes, and Beliefs
In addition to suggesting liking and importance, language can reveal the speaker's willingness to accept responsibility for a message
"It" versus "I" statements
"You" versus "I" statements
Questions versus statements
: Americans typically consider language powerful when it is clear, assertive, and direct. By contrast, language is often labeled powerless when it suggests that a speaker is uncertain, hesitant, intensely emotional, deferential, or nonassertive
Attraction and Interest
: Social customs discourage us from expressing like or dislike in many situations. Even when people are reluctant to speak candidly, the language they use can suggest their degree of interest and attraction toward a person, object, or idea.
Demonstrative pronoun choice
: Power isn't the only language reflects the status of relationships. Language can also be a way of building and demonstrating solidarity with others. Communicators can experience convergence online as well as in face-to-face interactions. Members of online communities often develop a shared language and controversial style, and their affiliation with one another can be seen in increased uses of the pronoun we.
: A linguistic strategy in which speakers emphasize differences between their communicate style and that of others to create distance
linguistic intergroup bias
: The tendency to label people and behaviors in terms that reflect their in-group or out-group status
: Accommodating one's speaking style to another person, usually a person who is desirable or has higher status