51, 52,53 (animal behavior (51) (innate/instinct, a reflex from day one…
animal behavior (51)
innate/instinct, a reflex from day one (sea turtles when they hatch and head to the sea) the hog nose snack
fixed action patterns stimuli a series of action taken to completion. goose sit on eggs and incubate the egg, when the egg is taken out the goose will pull it back in
imprinting happen during the critical period of time. salmon imprint on the chemical smell in the creaks
associative learning start to associate to stimuli. Pavlov and his dog, he ringed the bell and would feed his dog so every time the dog heard the bell he knew that he would be fed
trial & error
(52) terrestrial biomes
located in equatorial and subequatorial regions, precipitation rainfall is constant in tropical rainforest about 200-400km annually
tropical dry forest, the precipitation is highly seasonal about 150-200cm annually, while it has a six to seven month dry season
temperature is an average of 25-29 degrees Celsius
there are an estimated 5-30 million species that are undescribed species if insects, spiders, and arthropods. amphibians, birds and other reptiles, mammals
occur in bands near 30 degrees Celsius north to south latitude or other latitudes in the interior of other continents
precipitation barely any rainfall, less than 30cm per year
temperature, air temp in hot deserts can exceed 50 degrees Celsius, in the cold deserts the temp drops below negative degrees Celsius
animals, snakes, lizards, ants, beetles, migratory and resident birds, and seed eating birds. the animals are nocturnal, and water conservation is a common adaption
plants here include succulents, cacti, or euphorbs, deeply rooted shrubs, some herbs that grow during the moist periods
precipitation it has seasonal rainfall of about 30-50cm per year, and the dry seasons can last up eight or nine months
temperature, warm year round 24-29 degrees Celsius and have more seasonal variation than in the tropical forests
occur in equatorial and subequatorial regions
animals, plant-eating mammals examples are wildebeests, zebras, and predators, such as lions, hyena's. but the dominant herbivores that include insects, termites.
occurs in the midlatitude coastal regions
precipitation highly seasonal, that has rainy winters and dry summers. rainfall is an average range of 30-50cm
temperature, the fall, winter and spring are cool, with a temp average of 10-12 degrees Celsius, the summer average is about 3o degrees Celsius, and the daytime temp exceeds about 40 degrees Celsius
animals, deer and goats that feed on the twigs and bubs of woody vegetation. there are also amphibians, birds, and other reptiles, and insects
occur in the veldts of south Africa, the puszta of Hungary, the pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, the steppes of Russia, and the plains and prairies of central north america
precipitation, highly seasonal, dry winters and wet summers, rainfall on average between 30 and 100cm. and periodic drought is common
temperature, the winters on average fall to negative 10 degrees Celsius. the summers average is 30 degrees Celsius.
animals, bison, wild horses
northern coniferous forest
broad band across northern America and Eurasia to the edge of the arctic tundra
precipitation, annual ranges from 30 to 70cm, periodic droughts are common. there are some coastal coniferous forest of the U.S. pacific northwest are temperate rain that have an average of about 300cm
temperature, winters are cold, summers can be hot, coniferous forest in Siberia typically range from -50 degrees Celsius in the winter, and 20 degrees Celsius in the summer
animals, moose, brown bears, and Siberian tigers. the periodic outbreaks of insects that feed on the dominant trees can kill vast tracts of trees
temperate broadleaf forest
precipitation, average is about 70 to over 200 cm annually, rainfall all season, summer rain, in some forests , winter snow
temperature, winter is about 0 degrees Celsius, summers are hot and humid about 35 degrees Celsius
found mainly at midlatitudes in the northern hemisphere, Chile, south Africa, Australia, and new Zealand
animals, northern hemisphere the mammals in winter, and bird species migrate to warmer climate, the mammals, birds, and the insects use the vertical layers of the forest
precipitation, averages about 20 to60cm annually in the arctic tundra can exceed 100 cm in alpine tundra
areas of the arctic, 20& of earths land surface.
temperature, the winters are cold, and on average some areas are -30 degrees Celsius. summers average less than 10 degrees Celsius
animals, large musk oxen, caribou and reindeer are migratory. predators include bears, wolves, and foxes. birds species migrate to the tundra for summer nesting
population ecology (53)
density, the number of individuals per unit area or volume
affected by birth, death, immigration,emigration
occurs when rinst is greater than zero and is constant at each instant in time
size of a population that is grows exponentially increases at a constant rate, that when plotted the growth curve forms into a j- shaped
ex: elephants in the Kruger national park the population growth grew exponentially when they were protected from hunting
but b/c of large numbers of elephants there was damage to the vegetation that the food supply will likely collapse
to avoid this situation they limited the birth of elephants or they either exporting them to other countries
the j-shaped curve can change when a population that are introduced into a new environment or when the numbers have drastically dropped by a catastrophic event and are rebounding
per capita rate of increase approaches zero as the population size nears the carrying capacity
beetles and crustaceans, microorganisms, such as bacteria, and yeasts. these can fit the S-shaped curve well in the conditions of limited resources
they can survive b/c the environment lacks predators and competing species, reducing the growth of populatons
produces a sigmoid (s shaped), growth curve, when the N is plotted over time (the red line)
in reality there is a delay before the negative effects of an increasing population are reealized
if food becomes limiting it can effect the reproduction of a population, but the females can conserve energy to reproduce for a short time
dispersion, the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population
random dispersion the position of each individual in a population is independent of other individuals
uniform, evenly spaced result from direct interactions between individuals in the population
density-independent, the birth rate or death doesn't change the population density. ex: when the drought stress that arises when the root of the grass are uncovered by the shifting sands
density-dependent, the death rate increases with the population density or birth rate falling with the rising of the density
Watkinson and harper found that the reproduction in dune fescue declines as population density increases b/c of the scarce nutrient and water
disease, increases as the population becomes more crowded then the diseases impact s density-dependent
competition for resources, increasing population density intensifies completion for nutrients and resources, reducing reproduction
predation, is responsible for density-dependent mortality when the predator catches prey as the food population density of the prey increases
territoriality, limits population density when they have to compete for resources
intrinsic factors, regulate population size
toxic wastes, ethanol that accumulates in wine is toxic to yeast and contributes to density-dependent regulation of the yeast population
human population growth
the population around 1950 was increasing slowly with only 50 million people, within the next two centuries the population doubled to 1 billion, and double again up to 2 billion by 1930, and doubled again by 1975 to more than 4 billion
and the population is now more than 7 billion and is still increasing by 78 million each year.
the population is growing by 200,000 people each day.
ecological footprint, the aggregate land and water area required by each person, city, or nation to produce all the resources consumed and to absorb the waste generated
one way to figure out the ecological footprint of the human population is adding up the productive land on the planet and divide by the population (2 hectares per person)
it is also calculated by other currencies, such as energy use
after 1950, the death rate declined rapidly on developing countries and the birth rates have declined
china's birth has fallen, in Africa the transition to lower birth rates has also been rapid, even though the birth rates remain the high in sub-Saharan. in Africa and India the birth rates have fallen slowly.
in 2011 Afghanistan's mortality rate was 14.9%, and japan was 0.28%. the life expectancy for Afghanistan was 48 years and japan was 82 years.
life expectancy has gone up since 1950, has dropped regions such as the soviet union and in Saharan Africa, b/c social upheaval, decaying infrastructure, and disease such as aids and turberculosis
in Africa country of Angola the life expactancy in 2011 was 43 years about half of Japan, Sweden, Italy, and Spain
by 2050 ecologist suggest that global population will approximately be 8.1-10.6 billion people. estimated that 1-4billion will be added to the population
history entails, when reproduction began, how often the organisms reproduce, and how many off spring are produced per reproductive episode.
semelparity, one shot pattern of big bang reproduction
iteropparity, repeated reproduction
the female loggerhead turtle produces four clutches totaling approximately 300 eggs in a year. then it would wait two or three years before laying eggs
chemical environment, salinity, oxygen concentration, and nutrient content in lakes are different in lakes and can vary in season
oligotrophic- nutrient poor and are oxygen rich, eutrophic lakes-nutrient rich and often depleted of oxygen in the deepest zones in the summer and covered with ice in the winter
decomposable organic matter sediments is low in oligotrophic lakes and is high in eutrophic lakes.
b/c of the high rate of decomposition in the eutrophic lakes cause periodic oxygen depletion
physical environment, lakes covering thousands of square kilometers, the light decreases with depth that creates stratification.
temperate lakes may have seasonal thermocline and the tropical lowland lakes have thermocline year round
streams and rivers
physical environment, speed and volume of water flow, headwater streams are cold, clear, turbulent and it is swift.
the tributaries joined form a river and the water is warm and more turbid b/c of the suspended sediment
chemical environment, headwaters are rich in oxygen, the downstream water also contains oxygen except where there was organic enrichment
organic matter in the rivers consists of dissolved or highly fragmented material
physical environment, inundated by water sometimes and supports the plants that are adapted to water-saturated soil.
chemical environment, the water and the soil are periodically low in dissolved oxygen b/c of the high organic production by plants and decomposition by microbes and other organism
wetlands have a high capacity that lets them filter dissolved nutrients and the chemical pollutants
physical environment, they are a transition between river and sea, the seawater flows up the estuary channel during a rising tide and then flows back down when the tide falls
chemical environment, the salinity varies along with the rise and fall in tides , nutrients from the river make estuaries
physical environment, the ones are periodically submerged and are exposed by the tides twice.
upper zones have longer exposure to air and greater variation in the temperature and the salinity. there are many distributions of organisms b/c of the change in the physical conditions from the upper to lower zones.
chemical environment, there are high level of oxygen and nutrient levels and are renewed with each turn of the tides
configuration of bays or coastlines does influence the magnitudes of tides and the relative exposure of the organisms to wave action
if the environment is above the animals body temp then they can gain heat from their metabolism
mammals use some hormones to make mitochondria which makes their metabolism increase to produce heat instead of ATP this is called nonshivering thermogenesis
thermogenesis is increased by shivering and moving, shivering helps animals maintain body temp
nonshivering shivering mechanism help the mammal and birds expand the metabolic heat production.
brown fat that is found in the neck and shoulders of mammals is used for rapid heat production