Paper 1 (Education (Social Class and Education (Working Class (Less likely…
Roles of Education
Bridge between the family and the world of work.
Teaching skills for the workplace.
Creates social solidarity.
Pledging allegiance to the US flag.
Learning the same curriculum ie History.
results in value consensus.
Individual feels part of a wider network of people.
"School is society in miniature"
Davis and Moore
Role allocation and meritocracy.
Allocates people to jobs that are most suitable for their skills.
- People are rewarded for hard work, everyone has the opportunity to succeed.
Marxists argue that school is not meritocratic.
Functionalists ignore negative aspects of schools i.e Bullying.
Postmodernists argue that schools teach to test which kills creativity.
Functionalism reflect the views of the powerful.
Students are aware they are being controlled so they rebel creating their own subculture.
School is an ideological state apparatus or ISA.
Creates false consciousness which allows the ruling classes to control pupils and what they believe.
Bowles and Gintis
Schools reflect capitalism.
Creates subservient workforce.
Driven by external rewards.
Encourages acceptance of hierarchy.
Fragmentation of school subjects.
Learning is split up into different subjects.
1944 Tripartite System
Equality of Opportunity
- Money does not determine schooling for the first time.
- to provide different education to different types of students.
3 Types of School
Secondary Technical School
Examination that determines which type of school you attended.
Middle class attended grammar schools.
Abolished TP system.
One type of school for each student.
Equality of opportunity.
Poor standards in some schools.
Banding and streaming along social class lines
Lacked parental choice.
1988 Education Act
Introduce free market principles.
Greater parent choice and control over state education.
Started the privatisation of education.
Details of Act
Marketisation and Parentocracy.
Middle class had more choice (cultural capital)
Competition did increase standards.
League tables lead to teaching to test.
NC - ethnocentric.
1997 - New Labour
Equality of opportunity.
Respond to increased competition caused by globalisation.
Increase choice and diversity.
Details of policies
Sure Start programme
Reduced class sizes.
Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA)
Money given to low income houses to allow their children to stay in education past 16.
Increased funding to education,
Tuition fees introduced for higher education.
Early academies rose standards in poor areas.
Better at improving equality than the new right.
Sure start didn't improve education
Tuition fees put working class off (Connor et al)
2010 Coalition Government
Reduce public spending on education due to the financial crash.
Same as the new right.
Details of policies
Cut funding - scrapped EMA.
Academisation and Free schools are ideological - no evidence they raise standards.
Free schools - advantage middle class
Standards have carried on raising.
Social Class and Education
Being socialised into poverty means working class students are less likely to want to go to university than middle class students because they are more
Lower income families are disadvantaged for many reasons
Lack of Nursery Provision
Taking up a Part Time job
Poverty & poor diet
Low income family children are more likely to have emotional and/ or behavioural problems
Points out 'Free schooling' is never free. Highlights the 'hidden costs' of education
Working class kids more likely to be socialised into using the restrictive speech code.
So less able to understand their teachers.
Middle class kids use an elaborated code like their teachers.
Working class kids taught value of immediate gratification rather than differed gratification.
Therefore, less likely to value higher education
Home background influences kids all the way through school.
Middle class parents have the skills to research the best schools and help their kids with homework
Middle class parents can intervene more easily if their child is falling behind
Britain is still one of the most class based societies in the world
Social class is heavily tied with educational achievement
Generally speaking the higher the social class the higher the educational achievement
More likely to start school unable to read
Do less well in tests such as SATs
Less likely to get a place in top performing state schools
More likely to be placed in lower 'streams'
Generally achieve lower exam results
More likely to undertake vocational courses
Less likely to go onto higher education
2006: 5% of unskilled background students were accepted onto HE courses
2006: 60% of HE students were from MC backgrounds
Interactionist Labelling Theories:
Unequal access to classroom knoledge
Setting & Streaming
'wider Educational Policies
Stereotyping, labelling & self fulfilling prophecy
Cultural Deprivation Theories:
Cultural Attitudes, Beliefs & Views
Socio-Linguistics (Language Codes)
Material Deprivation (Poverty, Environment & Work)
Neoliberalism and the New Right perspective on education
The New Right
In the late 1970s they believed that too many state run schools were failing pupils
Schools were not preparing pupils for work
Parents had no choice in where to send their kids, they had to send them to the local comprehensive
Education standards were too low
They believed that creating an education market was the way to drive up standards in education
They believed parents should have a choice over which school their child goes to, and that schools should compete for pupils
A conservative view point which incorporates neoloiberal ideas
Established the current, competitive education system 1988 education act
SATs and GCSEs
Marketisation and Parentocracy
2 Roles for the state
Imposes a national curriculum
Important for shared sense of national identity
Imposes a framework of inspection on schools
The state should create a 'business friendly society' and encourage competition
Schools should be run like businesses and be made to compete for pupils
The government should not provide public services such as education, health and welfare
The people are left to meet their own needs through the free market
Policies seem to have raised standards
Countries with the most competitive education systems top the PISA league tables
Chubb and Moe
Proposed the introduction of a market system in education to raise standards
Proposed setting up a 'voucher system' - each family would be given a voucher to spend on buying education from the school of their choice
Private schools had better standards as they were answerable to fee paying parents
The idea was to make schools more answerable to parents
Believed state education had failed too many pupils
Competition benefits the middle classes - they can pay for extra tuition
Marketisation has encouraged teaching to test
State schools can work just as well as private schools, if funded appropriately
Theory and Methods
Main New Right guys