REPATRIATION & ADJUSTMENT (REPATRIATION (BLACK MODEL FOR REPATRIATION…
REPATRIATION & ADJUSTMENT
The expatriate's (or spouses') degree of psychological comfort & familiarity with different aspects of the foreign culture (Takeuchi, 2010)
FACETS OF EXPAT ADJUSTMENT (Black, 1988)
Work-adaptation to the work role in the foreign subsidiary
General-adjustment in the foreign country
Adjustment to interactions with host country nationals.
TWO PHASES OF ADJUSTMENT
induvidual(training, previous experience)
organisational (selection mechanisms & criteria)
THE SOCIALISATION & ROLE TRANSITIONS PERSPECTIVE (Lee & Larwood 1983, Mendenhall & Oddou 1985)
Whether & How expats value host-country values
Family support as a mediator between stressors & adjustment levels.
Lack of language fluency
National culture novelty
Lack of promotions
Lack of free choice
A MULTIPLE STAKEHOLDER VIEW
A stakeholder can affect or can be affected by an expat's achievement of the objectives set forth by an international assignment.
Family members: family conflict
Parent company: Strategic HRM
HCNs: social exchange
arising from interrole conflict
time-based: time constraints limit involvement
strain-based conflict: strain produced by role membership
behaviour- based conflict: when behaviours associated with one role are incompatible with aonther role.
Work role requirements cause an employee unable to meet family responsibilities
stress & dissatisfaction
Utilisation of resources usually devoted to
Family support will likely reduce the family-to-work conflict
HR deployments intended to enable an organisation to achive its goals.
When expats viewed from an SHR perspective, it underscores the importance of the larger context in which expats are embedded. :!?:
performance & adjustment issues in the larger context of how MNCs manage expts.
the environment & conditions expats are put in ma make it more or less difficult to adjust.
TYPE OF STRATEGY
a firm follows is likely to affect the HRM practice used.
multidomestic strategy: minimal use of expats
global strategy is likely to have more experience transferring HR practices from the parent company & vice versa
easier for expats to adjust to foreign environments
top management beliefs regarding the applicability of HRM practices may affect their HRM orientation & this may also affect the use
FOCUS on organisational level outcomes
which is distinct from functional
GLOBAL INTEGRATION PRESSURE
exerted by parent companies on foreign subidiaries
Social exchange Perspective
Previous culture-specific work experience and core self-evaluations moderate the trajectory of work adjustment.
Trajectory of adjustment predicts Month 9 career instrumentality and turnover intention, as well as career advancement (job promotion) 1.5 years further.
Adler(1981): Repatriation can be an even more difficult transition than was the move to the foreign country.
Unmet expectations => quitting
Feeling of being undervalued
Feeling that career growth had stalled while overseas
BLACK MODEL FOR REPATRIATION ADJUSTMENT
Anticipatory repatriation adjustment
individual, job, organisational & nonwork variables
individual, job, organisational, & non work variables
Anticipatory adjustment will affect in-country adjustment & that repatriation adjustment & organisational commitment are important in understanding functional & dysfunctional turnover/retention among repatriates.
Age, total time overseas, social status upon repatriation & housing conditions related to all 3 dimensions of repatriation adjustment.
Repatriate's perceptions of organisational support is strongly related to their intentions to leave the organisation & the availability & perceived value of specific practices predicted POS.
visible signs that the company values international experience & career planning sessions
68% received a promotion and/or higher salary
(Suutari & Brewster, 2003)
:!!: 35 % of repatriated employees worked for new organisation
:!!: 59% of those with the same employee considered leaving.
:!!: increased turnover
38% voluntarily quit within the 1st year (Brookfield Global Relocation
(2010) Trends Report)
(Kraimer et al, 2012)
Community embeddedness related to the expatriate's international employee role
& this identity creates strain when a repatriates perceives job underutilisation relative to peers.
An individual's self-concept can be derived from his/her position in an organised structure of relationships such as social roles or social types.
ongoing process of interactions with others through the enactment of various roles.
expat & repatriate work role transitions are distinct from work role transitions that occur domestically.
adapt to new working & living conditions.
creation of situations in which individuals need to reflect on their identity.
incorporated new meanings & aspirations in terms of how they approached their job responsibilities & careers.
still meaningful after repatriation
incorporation of characteristics of past roles as they experience role transitions
true when people feel awarded for taking part in previous role
new responsibilities & development of global competencies
career implications with possible future selves
:!: identity strain: as a person’s feelings of tension associated with his or her international
employee identity being inconsistent with the current environment.
the social environment does not reinforce one’s self-concept
incompatibility between repatriate's current job role & previous role, a lack of current job fit to his/her skills, inability to identify a role in the organisation
recognise the identity of expats
tangible credentialing & rewards
leverage of previous experience in a way that contributes to the performance
Job embeddedness as a process whereby employees become attached in social webs in organisations and communities.
Fit : comfort with job & community
Links : connections between a person & institutions or other people
Sacrifices : cost of material or psychological benefits associated with job & community
:!: The properties of job embeddedness provide the mechanisms that allow expats to develop an international employee identity.