Ecology and Animal Behavior (Interspecific Interactions- a relationship…
Ecology and Animal Behavior
Is the study of interactions between groups of organisms and their environment
The sum of all the planet’s
ecosystems and landscapes.
a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
a group of things in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common
the specified extent or degree to which an area is or has been populated.
Non living factors
long term, prevailing weather conditions in a given areas
Show latitudinal patterns
movement of individuals or gametes away from their area of origin or from areas of high population density.
Law of conservation of mass(enerfy)-
Mass(energy) can not be created nor destroyed
Energy levels in an ecosystem
that support all of the other levels
An organism that generally obtains food by feeding on other organisms or organic matter due to lack of the ability to manufacture own food from inorganic sources
that live on
(nonliving organic matter from the remains of dead organisms, feces, fallen leaves, and wood).
the amount of energy from light
converted to chemical energy of organic molecules per unit of time
is the gross primary productivity minus the
energy used by the primary producers for their autotrophic respiration.
e amount of light energy
converted to chemic energy by autotrophs.
the element that must be added for production to increase.
Sewage and fertalizers
A process by which nutrients(phosphorus and nitrogen)become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth or organisms such as algae and cynobacteria
The amount of chemical energy in consumers’ food that is converted to biomass during a given period of time (growth).
the percentage of energy stored in assimilated food that is used for growth and reproduction, not respiration
Typically have low production effeciences bc they have to maintain a constant high body temp.
Is the % of production transferred from 1 trophic level to the next
90% of the energy is not transferred to the next trophic level
The progressive loss of energy at each level limits the abundance of top level carnivores that can be supported by the environment.
water circulates between the earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving precipitation as rain and snow, drainage in streams and rivers, and return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration.
the series of processes by which nitrogen and its compounds are interconverted in the environment and in living organisms, including nitrogen fixation and decomposition.
series of processes by which carbon compounds are interconverted in the environment, chiefly involving the incorporation of carbon dioxide into living tissue by photosynthesis and its return to the atmosphere through respiration, the decay of dead organisms, and the burning of fossil fuels.
The phosphorus cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere
a relationship between individuals of two or more species in a community
• Individuals of the two different species compete for a resource that limits the survival and reproduction of each species.
Principle of Competitive Exclusion-
Populations of 2 similar species compete for the same limited resources and 1 population will use the resources more efficently, providing it a reproductive advantage, leading to the elimintaion of the other pop.
interaction between species in which one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey.
in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga, harming it.
interaction in which one organism, the parasite, gets nourishment from another, the host, which is harmed in the process.
Both species benefit, both species can survive on their own, and both organisms incur costs.
in which one species benefits and the other neither harms nor helps the other.
Where an organism lives
is the role an organism plays in a habitat
differentiation of niches that allows similar species to coexist
occupied by the species
the portion of the
fundamental nice that it occupies (niche in practice)
The tendency for charcateristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of 2 species than in allopatric pop of the same 2 speices
Geographically seperate species are morpholigically similar and use similar resources
One species benefits by feeding on the other species, which is harmed by the interaction.
live inside the host
live outside the host
the variety of different kinds of organisms that make up the community
the proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community
is the same for both communities because they both contain 4 species of trees.
are not isolated units, but are linked together into food webs.
the pathway along which food energy is transferred from trophic level to trophic level.
species that are most abundant or collectively have the highest biomass
- Speices that exist that exert strong control on community structure not by numerical but as a result of an important ecological role or niche
Mineral nutrients influence community organization by controlling plant of phyloplankton number, which control herbivore numbers, which control predator numbers
predation influences community organization by
controlling herbivore numbers, which control plant or phytoplankton numbers, which control nutrient numbers (trophic cascade effect)
Transition that species composition of a community a disturbance, establishment of a community in an area virtually barren of life
occurs where no organisms were originally present and soil has not yet formed
occurs where an existing community has been cleared by a disturbance that leaves the soil or substrate intact
The number of individuals per unit area or volume
The rate of births;
The rate of deaths;
individuals are aggregated into
individuals are evenly spaced
individuals are unpredictably spaced
the study of the vital statistics of a population and how they change over time.
provides a summary of age specific survival and reproductive rates of individuals in a population
Flat at the start and then drops steeply
Constant death rate
drops at the start then flattens
Growth of a pop in an ideal, unlimited environment, represented by a j shape curve
Carrying Capacity- limit to number of indiv. that can occupy a habitat
the traits that affect an organism’s schedule of
reproduction and survival
Populations tend to fluctuate in size from place to place or year to year-
the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior
an animal behavior that is developmentally fixed and under strong genetic control
Fixed Action Pattern-
A sequence of unlearned acts directly linked to a specific stimulus
complex patterns of innate behavior in which an animal recognizes a stimulus and responds with a behavior that it carries out until all parts of it are finished.
(biological clock – including migration, hibernation, and
a long-lasting behavior formed at a specific stage in life in response to
an individual or object
usually a response to an innate need
the process of knowing that may include awareness, reasoning,recollection, and judgement
the transmission and reception of signals between animals
A stimulus transmitted from one organism to another
Specices that are in low numbers
Economic development that meets the peoples' needs w/o limiting the ability of future generations
Harvesting of wild organisms at rates exceeding the ability of their
populations to rebound.
Humans intentionally or accidentally from native location to a new area