25. CONCEPTS OF CAUSE OR CONSEQUENCE (2. CAUSE OR CONSEQUENCES (2.1 DIRECT…
25. CONCEPTS OF CAUSE OR CONSEQUENCE
2. CAUSE OR CONSEQUENCES
2.1 DIRECT CAUSE
means, instrument or person that cause an event
Actor = answer to question 'what caused an event?'
Specified by Subj or Agent (passive)
Related to CAUSATIVE VERBS > cause another thing to happen, express direct cause (they STARTED a fire)
usually have a corresponding causative verb matching in form:
open, grow, blow up
, or diff form (die>kill)
Instroument / Means may take position of Subj when actor not mentioned: A bullet killed him.
In passive sentenes AGENT-BY phrase express actor (He was killed by a terrorist/bullet)
2.2 CAUSE AND RESULT
indicates why action is done
indicated by diff parts of speech
PREPOSIT PHRRASE beginning with FOR (He jumped for joy), BECAUSE OF, ON ACCOUNT OF
2..3 CAUSE AS A SUBJECT
EG: the driver's carelessness caused the crash / made the car crash
2.4 REASON OR CONSEQUENCE
Answers question WHY?
overelaps with cause notions. REASON, however, includs events and personal interpretation of events.
CLAUSES OF REASON
introduced by subordinators (because, since, as, now that, seeing that)
with BECAUSE clause comes 2nd and emphasis on subord. clause
with AS clause comes 1st and emphasis on main clause.
with SINCE, agrees with AS, but implieis that cause/reason is undisputed fact (since we live near the beach we can often go swimming)
SEEING THAT, NOW THAT: close to as and since, but NOW THAT implies time (Now that the weather has improved, ...)
very formal construction
alternatives with AS, SINCE, BECAUSE
Eg. Being a man of mixed ideas, he refused to listen to our arguments.
FOR + PHRASE
conveys emotion and attitude (I was angry with him for being lae/for his obsessive ...)
Eg. He ran out of money SO/THUS/THEREFORE he had to look for a job.
3. RESULT OR CONSEQUENCES
: result derived from action of the Vb (Eg. The architect
PREPOSITIONS WITH RESULTATIVE MEANING
idea of having reached a destination (I managed to get over the fence)
prepositions can be combined with BE (The horses are over the fence)
ALREADY, AT LAST, JUST, NOT YET (examples)
CONJUNCTS OF RESULT
Indicate that a sentence expressed consequence or result of what was said before
CONSEQUENTLY, SO, THUS, THEREFORE, AS A RESULT (examples)
SOMEHOW (in some way or other) used when reason not explicit in preceding context (doesn't indicate relationship btwn clause and what precedes): Somehow, they managed.
Phrases like THE RESULT / THE CONSEQUENCE IS/WAS THAT ...
Phrasal BRING ABOUT
COORDINATED CLAUSES where 2nd is result/conseq of the 1st (She is a sensitive driver and (so, therefore) she never takes risks.
3.1 CLAUSES OF RESULT
overlap with purpose in meaning and form
QUIRK, RESULT CLAUSES are factual (plan or idea expressed will be carried out). PURPOSE CLAUSES are putative (may not be fulfilled).
EXPRESSED BY 'THAT', 'SO THAT' ('that' can be omitted): He was speaking vey quietly, so that it was difficult to hear his voice
CL OF RESULT ASSOCIATED WITH
SO .... THAT: 'so' is an adverb used with adv and adj w/o nouns (I was so tired that I couln't sleep)
SUCH ... THAT: used in a NPh construction. SUCH A + NOUN CL replaceable by SO+ADJ+A+NOUN: such good man = so good a man (very formal)
can be followed by intensifiers (much, many). EX
can be placed at the beginning of sent for EMPHASIS (inversion): So hard did he work that ...
3.2 NON-FINITE FORMS EXPRESSING RESULT
INFINITIVE OF RESULT
: He only needed a few words to be convinced
The cat, having been fed, fed asleep
answers question WHAT FOR?
INFINITVE: They stopped to ask the way. When there's a personal object, infinitve may refer to it (He sent Tom to the shop to boy sweets
SO AS / IN ORDER TO + INF
With NEGATIVE INFINITIVE ( I am going to start now in order not to miss the beginning)
With BE and HAVE: she left work early in order / so as to be home by 7
PURPOSE not immediate: He studies hard in order to get a degree.
There is a PERSONAL OBJECT but want infinitive to refer to the subj: He sent his son to a Board School in order to have some peace
FOR + V-ing: express general purpose of a thing (a corkscrw is a tool for opening bottles. TO + inf to express a particular purpose
INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE AFTER 'GO' and 'COME' (Go and find Bill). GERUND: I'm thinking of going to look for mushrooms
CLAUSES OR PURPOSE
used when the peron to whom purpose refer is mentioned (They are climbing higher so that they may get a betwe view)
SO THAT, IN ORDER THAT, THAT
IN AFFIRMATIVE: some modal vbs used (MAN , CAN, WILL for future, MIGHT, COULD , WOULD, SHOULD for past
IN NEGATIVE: LEST, WILL, SHALL for present and future, WOULD and SHOULD for past. Also PREVENT + N/PRON + GERUND or AVOID +ING