23. SENTENCE STRUCTURE: AFFIRMARIVES, QUESTIONS, NEGATIVES AND EXCLAMATIONS
23. SENTENCE STRUCTURE: AFFIRMARIVES, QUESTIONS, NEGATIVES AND EXCLAMATIONS
: largest structural, independent unit in terms of which grammar of a lang is organised
syntactic classif /
DECLARATIVE S (statements)
INTERROGATIVE s (questions)
IMPERATIVE s (commands)
EXCLAMATIONS s (exclamations)
2. PARTS OF THE SENTENCE
SUBJ (person/thing about whom/which statement made) and PREDICATE (contains the statement). Normal order S+P
Noun or NounPh
clause w/ nominal function
'finite that' clause (That he failed to turned up ...)
'non-finite clause' (Having to go back for ...)
'anticipatory it' (It was impossible ...)
'unstressed there' (There is plenty ...)
'prepositional groups' (By plane costs ...)
'adverbial groups' (Now is the time)
'adjectival group' (The supernatural attracts ...). In normal speech occurs b4 Vb in declarative s., has a numb/pers concord with verbal phr
(several PARTS, Vb compulsory)
INTRANSITIVE (no object): He died.
MONO-TRANSITIVE (1 subj)
DITRANSITIVE: He gave me a surprise
COMPLEX TRANSITIVE (object+object complement): He made her famous.
COPULAR (subj complement): Susan is happy
reciever of Vb action
in passive s. becomes the subj
in sentences w/ +2 obj.
(involved in Vb action)
NOUN PH (She has made herself a dress)
CLAUSE WORKING AS NOMINAL
FINITE CL (They say that he is moving to London)
NON FINITE CL (Many people prefer to travel by car)
ANTICIPATORY IT (I find it strange that he refuses to go)
PREPOSITIONAL GROUP (I would prefer before noon for a meeting)
(action recipient, passive implication in action)
NOUN PH (Ken gave the girl an apple)
NON FINITE CL (I am giving reading magazines less importance lately)
PREPOSITIONAL GROUP (Let's give before lunch priority)
IO always precedes OD in 2-object sentences (He handed me the telegram).
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS (objects mediated by a prep): He agreed to the plan > The change of plan was agreed to (stranded prep).
completes Pred by specifying attribute (identity/circumstance) of
It follows a copuar Vb, linked to intensive relationship to Subj: The girl is a student
NOMINAL GROUP (They are our next-door neighbours)
ADJECTIVE CL (I am getting tired)
FINITE CL (He has become what he always wanted to be)
NON FINITE CL (My advice is to withdraw)
normally placed after OD, linked in an intensive relationship w it (The made him a chairman)
not linked to copular Vb (but understood): We found the secretary very helpful
NOMINAL GROUP (They have appointed my brother CEO of the company)
ADJECTIVE CL (They found the dog dead)
FINITE CL (That event has made the club what it is today)
NON FINITE CL (His fans believe him to be a genious)
PREPOSITIONAL GROUP (The robbers left the house in a mess)
AS/FOR + NOUN PH (I regard him as my best friend / I mistook you for someone else)
optional, added to give more detail to given info
ADVERBS (Tom touched her tenderly)
ADVERBIAL PH/CL (It has been raining very hard)
NOUN PH (I want to play my way)
PREPOSITIONAL PH (In fact, I do want to go)
FINITE CL (What is more, he hit her)
NON FINITE CL (To sum up, I think you are wrong)
3 PRIMARY CLASSES (acc to functional relationship)
ADJUNCTS (circumstancial info, omittable w/o affecting grammar: I see you (tomorrow) (at the show). Flexible position
DISJUNCTS (attitudinal comment by Sp on sentence content): Obviously/Naturally, he was wrong. High mobility
CONJUNCTS (not structure elements but connectors, show how Sp/Wr understands semantic connection btwn 2 utts. Means of text organising: nevertheless, furthermore, in other owrds instead, but, after that, then, next, because, finally, to sum up, ...
basic structure of sentences primarily used to convery info, declare that sth is (not) true.
distinction between positive and non-positive (assesrtive and non-assertive).
Assertive - Positive declarative
Non Assertive - Negative declarative
3.1 POSITIVE / AFFIRMATIVE
basic type of simple sentence w Subj, Vb and Pred
BASIC STRUCTURES OF STATEMENTS
S+V+Cs (He is kind)
S+V+DO+Co (She proved him a liar)
S+V+DO+Adv (He put it there)
Subj precedes Vb except for some cases of inversion, V+S (Chalker)
ADVERBIAL AT THE BEGINNING (Never had I ...)
SHORT ANSWERS FOR (DIS)AGREEING (So do I)
SO+Adj/Adv (So brilliant was ...)
SUCH+NOUN PH (Such was his talent ...)
MANY A + N (Many a trouts has he fished)
ASSERTIVE FORMS WITH SOME (+COMPOUNDS): factual meaning (I would like some coffee)
NON-ASSERTIVE FORM ANY possible in positive declarative meaning 'it does not matter which' (Any child could...)
sth untrue, not happening, not the case
4 TYPES OF NEGATIVE DECLAR
BY NEGATING VERB: aux. do/does when not 'be' or modal. NOT placed btwn operator and predicator
NUCLEAR NEGATIVES: none, neither, nor, never, no-(compounds), not (even, enough, much, many), under no circumstances
SEMI-NEGATIVE FORMS: scarcely, seldom, hardly ever, barely, rarely, little/few
WORDS W/ NEGATIVE AFFIXES: unhappy, incredible, meaningless, amoral
do not favour MULTIPLE NEGATION (succession of nuclear negative) > first negative item followed throughout rest of clause by one or more non-assertive forms: any (+compounds), either, or, even.
NON-ASSERTIVE Ws like 'ANY' (+compounds)
associated w/ non-factual meanings
ooccur in diverse syntactic contexts (interr, neg, ...) when a non-specific interpretation is required (I cannot go anywhere)
2 ALTERNATIVE NEG STRUCTURES
ALWAYS > DOESN'T EVER > NEVER
KNOW STH > DON'T KNOW ANYTHING > KNOW NOTHING
MEET SOMEONE > DIDN'T MEET ANYONE > MEET NO-ONE
SOME BREAD > THERE ISN'T ANY BREAD > THERE'S NO BREAD
EVERYWHERE > ANYWHERE > NOWHERE
semantically equivalent, 2 neg structures rarely appropriate in same stylistic register. NUCLEAR FORMS more common in formal/written lang VS non-assertive more informal
NUCLEAR 'N0' frequent in spoken lang to give prominence to neg (carries stress): He is NO friend of mine!
NEGATIVE ITEM in initial position only nuclear form possible (non-assertive forms not a negative in themselves>can't open negative sent (Nobody turned up, no invitations were sent, nevere say that)
RECOGNITION: subject-operator inversion and end '?'
OPERATOR: aux do/does/did (unless 'be' or modal)
NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVES 2-way structure
Haven't you ever been ...?
Have you never been to ...?
class (acc to sought answer)
(1) YES/NO QUESTIONS (expect only affirmation or rejection. Place auxiliary before Subj)
(2) INFORMATION / WH-QUESTIONS
expect specific type of info: Wh-Words
structure: Wh+op+sb+vb+ob. Differe if Sb or other element being question
Wh-Wds combined with lexical items (What one earth)
(3) ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS
expect as a reply 1 between 2 or several alternatives (expected answer found in the question (Would you like tea or coffee?
(4) MINOR INTERR TYPES
RHETORICAL QUESTIONS: imply strong assertion w/o expecting answer (Who cares?)
TAG QUESTIONS: interr signals attached to sentence to convey pos/neg orientation. Help carry conversatioon forward. Op+subj (pron). Polarity of two parts reversed (positive statement-negative tag and viceversa). Both can be positive if tag expresses conclusion or ironic attitude (so you believe in democracy, do you?)
ECHO QUESTIONS: repeat all or part of previous utt as hearer finds it diff to believe or doesn't understand (Would you mind ...? Putting the cat out? / Did who leave a message?
In tradictional grammar: emotional utt lacking grammatical structure of a full sentencem marked by a strong intonation.
In modern grammar, restrictted sense: constructions which begin with How / What
type of sentence used to express Sps feelings/attitudes. In speech accompanied by emphatic intonation. In written exclamation mark
No fixed structure
What a nice day (is it)!
You didn't do that!
How strange (it was)!
2 TYPES OF EXCL SENTENC
ECHO EXCLAMATIONS: repeat part of the structure of main clause > kind of disagreement (common in speech): What a glorious day! A glorious day!
EXCLAMATORY QUESTIONS: questions in form but exclamative in function. In speech, falling intonation (Hasn't she grown!). Invite to listener's agreement
6. CLAUSE COMBINATION
form of one class BUT the function of another
DECLARATIVE QUESTIONS (You aren't ready?): declarative in form but question in function
DECLARATIVE EXCLAMATIONS (It was so hot!): declarative in form but exclamative in function
INTERROGATIVE STATEMENTS (Who will believe that story?): Interr in form but decl in function.
INTERROGATIVE EXCLAMATIONS: How dare you speak to me like that? (int in form but excl. in function).