23. SENTENCE STRUCTURE: AFFIRMARIVES, QUESTIONS, NEGATIVES AND EXCLAMATIONS
23. SENTENCE STRUCTURE: AFFIRMARIVES, QUESTIONS, NEGATIVES AND EXCLAMATIONS
6. CLAUSE COMBINATION
INTERROGATIVE EXCLAMATIONS: How dare you speak to me like that? (int in form but excl. in function).
INTERROGATIVE STATEMENTS (Who will believe that story?): Interr in form but decl in function.
DECLARATIVE EXCLAMATIONS (It was so hot!): declarative in form but exclamative in function
DECLARATIVE QUESTIONS (You aren't ready?): declarative in form but question in function
form of one class BUT the function of another
2 TYPES OF EXCL SENTENC
EXCLAMATORY QUESTIONS: questions in form but exclamative in function. In speech, falling intonation (Hasn't she grown!). Invite to listener's agreement
ECHO EXCLAMATIONS: repeat part of the structure of main clause > kind of disagreement (common in speech): What a glorious day! A glorious day!
No fixed structure
How strange (it was)!
You didn't do that!
What a nice day (is it)!
type of sentence used to express Sps feelings/attitudes. In speech accompanied by emphatic intonation. In written exclamation mark
In modern grammar, restrictted sense: constructions which begin with How / What
In tradictional grammar: emotional utt lacking grammatical structure of a full sentencem marked by a strong intonation.
class (acc to sought answer)
(4) MINOR INTERR TYPES
ECHO QUESTIONS: repeat all or part of previous utt as hearer finds it diff to believe or doesn't understand (Would you mind ...? Putting the cat out? / Did who leave a message?
TAG QUESTIONS: interr signals attached to sentence to convey pos/neg orientation. Help carry conversatioon forward. Op+subj (pron). Polarity of two parts reversed (positive statement-negative tag and viceversa). Both can be positive if tag expresses conclusion or ironic attitude (so you believe in democracy, do you?)
RHETORICAL QUESTIONS: imply strong assertion w/o expecting answer (Who cares?)
(3) ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS
expect as a reply 1 between 2 or several alternatives (expected answer found in the question (Would you like tea or coffee?
(2) INFORMATION / WH-QUESTIONS
Wh-Wds combined with lexical items (What one earth)
structure: Wh+op+sb+vb+ob. Differe if Sb or other element being question
expect specific type of info: Wh-Words
(1) YES/NO QUESTIONS (expect only affirmation or rejection. Place auxiliary before Subj)
NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVES 2-way structure
Have you never been to ...?
Haven't you ever been ...?
OPERATOR: aux do/does/did (unless 'be' or modal)
RECOGNITION: subject-operator inversion and end '?'
NON-ASSERTIVE Ws like 'ANY' (+compounds)
2 ALTERNATIVE NEG STRUCTURES
NEGATIVE ITEM in initial position only nuclear form possible (non-assertive forms not a negative in themselves>can't open negative sent (Nobody turned up, no invitations were sent, nevere say that)
NUCLEAR 'N0' frequent in spoken lang to give prominence to neg (carries stress): He is NO friend of mine!
semantically equivalent, 2 neg structures rarely appropriate in same stylistic register. NUCLEAR FORMS more common in formal/written lang VS non-assertive more informal
EVERYWHERE > ANYWHERE > NOWHERE
SOME BREAD > THERE ISN'T ANY BREAD > THERE'S NO BREAD
MEET SOMEONE > DIDN'T MEET ANYONE > MEET NO-ONE
KNOW STH > DON'T KNOW ANYTHING > KNOW NOTHING
ALWAYS > DOESN'T EVER > NEVER
ooccur in diverse syntactic contexts (interr, neg, ...) when a non-specific interpretation is required (I cannot go anywhere)
associated w/ non-factual meanings
do not favour MULTIPLE NEGATION (succession of nuclear negative) > first negative item followed throughout rest of clause by one or more non-assertive forms: any (+compounds), either, or, even.
4 TYPES OF NEGATIVE DECLAR
WORDS W/ NEGATIVE AFFIXES: unhappy, incredible, meaningless, amoral
SEMI-NEGATIVE FORMS: scarcely, seldom, hardly ever, barely, rarely, little/few
NUCLEAR NEGATIVES: none, neither, nor, never, no-(compounds), not (even, enough, much, many), under no circumstances
BY NEGATING VERB: aux. do/does when not 'be' or modal. NOT placed btwn operator and predicator
sth untrue, not happening, not the case
3.1 POSITIVE / AFFIRMATIVE
NON-ASSERTIVE FORM ANY possible in positive declarative meaning 'it does not matter which' (Any child could...)
ASSERTIVE FORMS WITH SOME (+COMPOUNDS): factual meaning (I would like some coffee)
Subj precedes Vb except for some cases of inversion, V+S (Chalker)
MANY A + N (Many a trouts has he fished)
SUCH+NOUN PH (Such was his talent ...)
SO+Adj/Adv (So brilliant was ...)
SHORT ANSWERS FOR (DIS)AGREEING (So do I)
ADVERBIAL AT THE BEGINNING (Never had I ...)
BASIC STRUCTURES OF STATEMENTS
S+V+DO+Adv (He put it there)
S+V+DO+Co (She proved him a liar)
S+V+Cs (He is kind)
basic type of simple sentence w Subj, Vb and Pred
Non Assertive - Negative declarative
Assertive - Positive declarative
distinction between positive and non-positive (assesrtive and non-assertive).
basic structure of sentences primarily used to convery info, declare that sth is (not) true.
2. PARTS OF THE SENTENCE
(several PARTS, Vb compulsory)
3 PRIMARY CLASSES (acc to functional relationship)
CONJUNCTS (not structure elements but connectors, show how Sp/Wr understands semantic connection btwn 2 utts. Means of text organising: nevertheless, furthermore, in other owrds instead, but, after that, then, next, because, finally, to sum up, ...
DISJUNCTS (attitudinal comment by Sp on sentence content): Obviously/Naturally, he was wrong. High mobility
ADJUNCTS (circumstancial info, omittable w/o affecting grammar: I see you (tomorrow) (at the show). Flexible position
NON FINITE CL (To sum up, I think you are wrong)
FINITE CL (What is more, he hit her)
PREPOSITIONAL PH (In fact, I do want to go)
NOUN PH (I want to play my way)
ADVERBIAL PH/CL (It has been raining very hard)
ADVERBS (Tom touched her tenderly)
optional, added to give more detail to given info
AS/FOR + NOUN PH (I regard him as my best friend / I mistook you for someone else)
PREPOSITIONAL GROUP (The robbers left the house in a mess)
NON FINITE CL (His fans believe him to be a genious)
FINITE CL (That event has made the club what it is today)
ADJECTIVE CL (They found the dog dead)
NOMINAL GROUP (They have appointed my brother CEO of the company)
not linked to copular Vb (but understood): We found the secretary very helpful
normally placed after OD, linked in an intensive relationship w it (The made him a chairman)
NON FINITE CL (My advice is to withdraw)
FINITE CL (He has become what he always wanted to be)
ADJECTIVE CL (I am getting tired)
NOMINAL GROUP (They are our next-door neighbours)
It follows a copuar Vb, linked to intensive relationship to Subj: The girl is a student
completes Pred by specifying attribute (identity/circumstance) of
in sentences w/ +2 obj.
(action recipient, passive implication in action)
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS (objects mediated by a prep): He agreed to the plan > The change of plan was agreed to (stranded prep).
IO always precedes OD in 2-object sentences (He handed me the telegram).
PREPOSITIONAL GROUP (Let's give before lunch priority)
NON FINITE CL (I am giving reading magazines less importance lately)
NOUN PH (Ken gave the girl an apple)
(involved in Vb action)
CLAUSE WORKING AS NOMINAL
PREPOSITIONAL GROUP (I would prefer before noon for a meeting)
ANTICIPATORY IT (I find it strange that he refuses to go)
NON FINITE CL (Many people prefer to travel by car)
FINITE CL (They say that he is moving to London)
NOUN PH (She has made herself a dress)
in passive s. becomes the subj
reciever of Vb action
COPULAR (subj complement): Susan is happy
COMPLEX TRANSITIVE (object+object complement): He made her famous.
DITRANSITIVE: He gave me a surprise
MONO-TRANSITIVE (1 subj)
INTRANSITIVE (no object): He died.
clause w/ nominal function
'adjectival group' (The supernatural attracts ...). In normal speech occurs b4 Vb in declarative s., has a numb/pers concord with verbal phr
'adverbial groups' (Now is the time)
'prepositional groups' (By plane costs ...)
'unstressed there' (There is plenty ...)
'anticipatory it' (It was impossible ...)
'non-finite clause' (Having to go back for ...)
'finite that' clause (That he failed to turned up ...)
Noun or NounPh
SUBJ (person/thing about whom/which statement made) and PREDICATE (contains the statement). Normal order S+P
syntactic classif /
EXCLAMATIONS s (exclamations)
IMPERATIVE s (commands)
INTERROGATIVE s (questions)
DECLARATIVE S (statements)
: largest structural, independent unit in terms of which grammar of a lang is organised