Clauses II (More properties of subordinate clauses (The subordinate…
Main and subordinate clauses
Subordinate clauses= it derive from main clauses which are put into subordinate positions in sentences and undergo certain syntactic changes
One way of handling the relationship between main and subordinate clauses is to assume that the route from main clauses to relative clauses, as in:
The cottage which Mrs. Dashwood accepted was very small.
is moved to the front of clause to a special slot for complementisers outside the main body of the clause. It enables us to show that
is the direct object of
and that it is complementiser of the relative clause.
-The analysis of relative clause can be made more complex if we take at its face value the definition of pronouns as substituting for nouns. As in
being substituted for
and then being moved to complementiser slot.
-The source main clause
needs an object, so we can take as
that Mrs. Dashwood accepted it
. It is used because en route with the relative clause.
Relative clauses with the complementiser
have a different source. Since
is not a pronoun, there is no reason to start with it in subject or object position and then move it.
More properties of subordinate clauses
The subordinate clauses in a given sentence are to a large extent grammatically independent of the main clause
They cannot stand on their own (in writing, at any rate), but the main clause doesn't control the choice of verb and other constituents
Two of the complement clauses are active and the last one is passive. One complement clause is a copula constructions.
Subordinate clauses are not free with respect to choice of declarative, interrogative and imperative syntax.
The Phrase 'most types of complement clause' was used because a number of verbs allow a type of complement that is traditionally called 'indirect question'
The complement clauses have straightforward interrogative syntax.
Finite and non-finite clauses.
Much contemporary analysis recognises a category of non-finite clauses- sequences of words which lack a finite verb but nonetheless are treated as subordinate
Classical finite subordinate clauses, they contain a verb and a full set of modifiers.
The non-finite constructions are highly limited in their grammar.
The non-finite constructions do allow some modality to be signalled, events can be presented as necessary, or requiring permission, or requiring ability
What are called Free participles, adjuncts containing -ing forms, pose interesting problems.
Non-finite constructions with infinitives and participles at least contain a verb form.
Clause and sentence
The place when clauses occur in sentence
Relative clauses are embedded in noun phrase and immediately follow the head noun e.g. I got a jug form India that was broken
Verb complement clauses substitute for either noun phrase with a transitive verb e.g. Anna astonished her father
Adverbial clause of time occur at the beginning of a clause or at the end of the verb phrase e.g. Yesterday Lydia eloped with Wickham
Adverbial clause happen by preceding or following the main clause and optional (adjuncts) e.g. The commuters traveled by army lorry because the bus drivers were on strike
Clauses of concession and condition can also be seen a parallel phrases e.g. Although Mr. Darcy disliked Mrs. Bennet he married Elizabeth