Consensus and Conflict theories
Consensus and Conflict theories
Murdock- Family (SEER).
Bowles & Gintis- correspondence principle
Durkheim- Deductive, organic analogy, functions of the church.
Parsons- Family (SOAP) primary socialisation, meritocracy.
Rosenthal & Jacobsen- Self-fulfilling prophecy
Malinowski- Incest Island, Functionalism
Davis & Moore- Skills provision
Cohen- Status frustration
Merton- strain theory, American dream
Engels- inheritance, monogamy.
Marx- Exploitation lead to interests of the ruling class.
Zaretsky- safety valve
Weber- Calvinism, new proletariat's, protestant work ethic.
Gordon- capitalism causes crime (criminogenic capitalism)
Reimen- Selective enforcement
Daly- Christianity, as long as God is a man, never be equality.
Oakley- Housewives- 'myth of modern man'
Benson- 'takers of shit'. 'Reserve army of labour'.
Woods- Men continue to exploit females. Result of exploitation at work.
Heidesohn- Social control (reputation, what men think and gossiping)
Davie- Believing without belonging. Different view of God.
Supported views of Durkheim interested in specifically understanding and explaining structures of society and how they work.
Goal attainment (political functions)- society must develop ways of making decisions.
Adaptation (economic function)- every society must provide an adequate standard of life for survival of its members.
Integration (social harmony)- society must work together and help others in times of need etc., could be done through religion.
Latency (individual beliefs and values)- how individuals themselves cope in society based on own values and beliefs.
Criticisms of functionalists
Rose tinted glasses- only focus on positives, e.g. ignore diversity, doesn't look at dark side of family. In crime doesn't explain why some people commit crime. Religion can cause conflict and so isn't always positive.
CAGE- ignores individual differences, society as a whole (macro theory).
Too broad/vague, e.g. egoism is hard to measure. Anomie's difficult to measure. Not always much empirical data to support claims.
Outdated- doesn't consider diversity, e.g. same sex, rise in feminism, family diversity.
Liberal feminists- follow laws and want law to change in order to create equality.
Radical feminists- oppression of women is because of men so have a negative view on men.
Marxist feminists- have a view of patriarchy and Bourgeoisie oppresses women.
Difference feminists- believe not all women are oppressed and accept that some women may want to be housewives.
Criticisms of conflict
Marxism is deterministic, e.g. assumes all working class people are exploited and oppressed.
They only focus on class inequality, e.g. don't take into consideration factors such as age, gender and ethnicity.
The increased affluence and consensual nature of western countries disputes claims that all societies are in conflict.
Macro theory- whole society in their theories, take into account ALL major institutes and relationships.
Micro theory- interested in small-scale groups or small institutions as only focus on specific group they are theorising.
Developed idea of hegemony in society. Hegemony- domination of ruling class ideology in society.
Argued that the ruling class controls means of producing ideas meaning ideas become dominant in society.
Working class give consent to domination because they're unaware it's happening. Consent crucial way of maintaining power in society- more effective than coercion (power and force).
Proletarian Hegemony- Developed this which idea that if lower classes are to overcome their position ion society, must do so intellectually and develop new idea of how to organise society.
People can't come up with new ideas about society, ability to do this is a lie because of Idelogical State Apparatus (controlling ruling class have).
Marx argued that economics determine everything in society, but he argued that political and ideological structures are just as important. Capitalism can be overthrown when all 3 structures contradict each other.
Best known for organic analogy of society, idea that society's similar to a living body. It adapts to environment, has small, individual parts, must all work together in order for living body to function and exist- just as society.
Durkheim has also been very influential in advocating positivist research methods, predominantly based on looking at statistical data, e.g. Le Suicide.
2 or more opposing views disagreed within society.