Protein Synthesis and Mutation (Protein Synthesis (Linear Polymers (9…
Protein Synthesis and Mutation
The two processes necessary to make a protein from the information in DNA are transcription and translation.
translation : occurs when the RNA leaves the nucleous and goes to the cytoplasm where translation occurs on a ribosome and produces a protein
transcription: happens in the nucleus, uses the DNA sequence to make an RNA molecule.
central dogma: explains the molecular transfer of sequence information
“DNA makes RNA makes protein” is the central dogma of molecular biology
small differences in the order of amino acids in proteins are enough to make us all different.
polymers that compromise DNA, RNA, amino acid
sequence of monomers encode genetic information
The DNA sequence is used to encode RNA, and the RNA sequence is used to encode protein.
9 potential types of transfers due to 3 biopolymers ( DNA, RNA, amino acids
3 general transfers
occurs normally in most cells
describe normal flow of biological information
3 special transfers
occur under special conditons
3 unknown transfers
not belived to occur
transfer of information from RNA to DNA
occurs in retroviruses, such as HIV, the virus that causes AIDS
RNA viruses that are duplicated in a host cell by using reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome.
Retrotransposons are self-replicating segments of eukaryotic genomes that use reverse transcriptase to move from one position in the genome to another via a RNA intermediate.