1.4 describe the network protocol and the principals of communication…
1.4 describe the network protocol and the principals of communication
establishing the rules
an identified sender and receiver
agreed upon method of communicating (face to face, telephone,letter, photograph)
speed and timing of delivery
rules of communication
1) message encoding
encoding - process of converting information another,
acceptable form, for transmission
decoding - reverses this process in order to interpret the
each computer message is encapsulated in a specific format, called a frame, before it is sent over the network
frame - provides the address of the intended destination and the address of the source host
the size restrictions of frame require the source host to break a long message into individual pieces(or segment) that meet both the minimum
each segment is encapsulated in a separate frame with the address information, and is sent over the network.
4) message timing
- host on a network need an access method to know when to begin sending message and how to respond when errors occur
- a sending host can transmit messages at a faster rate than the destination host can receive and process. source and destinnation hosts use flow control to negatiate correct timing for seccesful communication
- host on the also have rules that specify how long to wait for response and what action to take if response timeout accurs.
5) message delivery options (pattern)
- a one to one message pattern. there is only a single destination for message.
- a host needs to send message using a one to many pattern. delivery of the same message to a group of host destination simultaneously,
- all hosts the network need to receive the message at the same time. represents a one to all message pattern.
Interaction of Protocals
Application Protocol-Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP)
- an application protocol for distributed, collaboration and hypermedia information system. HTTP is the foundation of data communication.
Transport Protocal-Transmission Control Protocal(TCP)
- a connection oriented service, widely used transport layer protocol. TCP provides process to process, full duplex.
Internet Protocal-Internet Protocal(IP)
- each computer (known as a host) on the internet at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computer on the internet. data is sent from one computer to another on the internet.
Network Access Protocals-Data link & physical layers
- data link provide a service for network layer (transfer of data from the network layer of a sender to the network layer of a receiver). physical layer is the first layer of the open system interconnection model(OSI Model).
The Internet Society (ISOC)
- a global cause-driven organization, dedicated to ensuring that the internet stays open, transparent and defined by user.
the internet society has also played an important role in informing and creating the history of the internet.
The Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
- a board of researchers and professionals that manages the engineering and technical development related to the internet. IAB offers assistance and insight on a wide range of internet related concern.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
- a collection of individual, developing standards for the internet. work is done in working groups, which usually define and develop a specific technology and then terminate.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
- a global association and organization of professionals working toward the development, implementation and maintenance of technology centered product and services.
The International Organization for Standards (ISO)
- promotes worldwide, standards for the improvement of quality, productivity and operating efficiency through a series of standards and guidelines.