Protein Synthesis and Mutation (Protein Synthesis (Reverse transcription…
Protein Synthesis and Mutation
The two processes necessary to make a protein
The central dogma of molecular biology
Describes the fundamental process that makes us all different
The polymers that comprise DNA, RNA and amino acids are
Deals with the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of sequential information.
It is those small difference in the DNA sequence of different alleles
is translated into small differences in the mRNA molecules
those differences in the mRNAs are then translated into proteins.
those small differences in the order of amino acids in proteins are enough to make us all different
(DNA, RNA, and protein),
there could be as many as nine potential types of transfers
Central dogma classes these into three groups of three
three general transfers
three special transfers
three unknown transfers.
DNA → DNA
DNA → RNA
RNA → protein
RNA → DNA
RNA → RNA
DNA → protein
protein → DNA
protein → RNA
protein → protein
is the transfer of information from RNA to DNA
Reverse transcription occurs in retroviruses,
EX: such as HIV, the virus that causes AIDS
are self-replicating segments of eukaryotic genomes that use reverse transcriptase to move from one position in the genome to another via a RNA intermediate
is a region of repetitive noncoding nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome
is the copying of one RNA to another
refers to mechanisms of gene silencing, in which the expression of one or more genes is downregulated or entirely suppressed by the binding of an antisense RNA molecule
molecule is a single-stranded RNA that is complementary to a mRNA strand transcribed within a cell.
is a change in the DNA or RNA sequence
Genetic recombination after duplication of different domains forms new combinations of domains with new functions
the human eye uses four genes to make structures that sense light:
three for color vision and one for night vision
Mutations that duplicate large sections of DNA are a major source of genetic material for new genes.
It is through duplication
mutations that such gene families formed.
all four arose from a single ancestral gene.
DNA sequences that can translocate around the genome comprise a significant fraction of the genetic material of plants and animals
One example is the Alu sequence
Alu sequence are present in the human genome
making this transposon equivalent to just under 11% of the human genome.
are classified as short interspersed elements (SINEs)
This RNA is the RNA component of the signal recognition particle (SRP)
This complex is a universally conserved ribonucleoprotein that directs the traffic of proteins within the cell
Type of Mutation
a base is changed by the repositioning of a hydrogen atom
loss of a purine base (A or G)
spontaneous deamination of 5-methycytosine
a purine to purine, or a pyrimidine to pyrimidine change
a purine becomes a pyrimidine, or vice versa
is a process by mutations, stable changes in the genetic material, are created.
Mutation that don't do no affect is called
Their called Neutral Mutation because they don't change the amino acids or protein