RESISTANCE TO SOCIAL INFLUENCE (LOCUS OF CONTROL (LOC) (CONTINUUM (People…
RESISTANCE TO SOCIAL INFLUENCE
THE ABILITY OF PEOPLE TO WITHSTAND THE SOCIAL PRESSURE TO CONFORM TO MAJORITY OR OBEY TO AUTHORITY. THIS ABILITY TO WITHSTAND SOCIAL PRESSURE IS INFLUENCED BY BOTH SITUATIONAL AND DISPOSITIONAL FACTORS.
The presence of people who resist pressures to conform or obey can help others to do the same. These people act as models to show others that resistance to social influence is possible.
Social support can help to resist conformity.
Pressure to conform can be reduced if other people present don't conform
Person does not have to be "right" but if there is another individual that does not follow the majority allows the person to be free to follow their own conscience.
other person acts like a "MODEL"
not a long lasing effect of dissent as if the 'non-conforming person starts conforming again, so does the naive participant.
Social support can help to resist obedience.
Pressure to obey can be reduced if there is another person who disobeys.
Milgram's variations research
- rate of obedience dropped from 65% - 10% when the genuine participant was joined by a disobedient confederate.
participant may not follow the disobedient person's behaviour but the other person's disobedience acts as a 'model' for the participants to copy that frees him to cat from his own conscience.
LOCUS OF CONTROL (LOC)
Refers to the sense we each have about what directs events in our lives.
JULIAN ROTTER (1966).
believe they are mostly responsible for what happens to them (internal locus of control).
believe it is mainly a matter of luck or other outside forces. (external locus of control)
People differ in the way they explain their successes or failures but it isn't simply a matter of internal or external
Continuum with high LOC at one end
High LOC at other end of continuum
low internal and low external lying in between
RESISTANCE TO SOCIAL INFLUENCE
Research support by Allen and Levine (1971) for conformity
Asch type of stude
When descender has glasses and said they had poor vision it encouraged people to not conform
This allowed people to follow their conscious.
Research support by Gamson et al. (1982) for obedience.
Higher level of rebellion in independent group.
Participants were in groups
29/30 groups rebelled(88%)
This shows peer support is linked to greater resistance.
LOCUS OF CONTROL
Research support by Holland (1967) to show there is a link between resistance and LOC.
Repeated Milgram's study
Wanted to see whether participant were internal or external
37% internals, didn't continue to highest shocks
23% externals, didn't continue
This showed internals have greater resistance and the support increases the validity of LOC
There is support that contradicts this by Twenge et al. (2001)
Analysed the American LOC over 40 years.
Showed that people are more independent but also more external
challenges the link between LOC and resistance
LOC is exaggerated
Rotter found is only important in new situations
If people obeyed once in one situation they are likely to do it again.
This means that LOC is only helpful in explaining a narrow ranges of new situations.