The Camp David Agreements (1979) and The Lebanese Invasion (Before the…
The Camp David Agreements (1979) and The Lebanese Invasion
Before the Agreement
became the new leader of Israel. He was determined not to lose the West Bank, but he was more flexible with Sinai. This was the year Carter took office in the States
he made the shock announcement that he was going to visit the Israeli parliament personally to seek peace.
Assad, the Syrian leader, and Arafat were deeply shocked and unhappy with Sadat's actions.
When speaking to the Knesset, he called for a peaceful settlement between Arabs, Palestinians and Jews
While Begin was prepared to give up the Sinai, he didn't want to destroy Jewish settlements that had been established. Sadat was insistent that they went
Carter hosted a meeting between Sadat and Begin at his country house, Camp David. Within 13 days of negotiation, both sides reached an agreement.
Agreements over the future of the Palestinians was less impressive, and were rejected by the PLO
Israel was to return the Sinai and lose the Jewish settlements within them
was given to the Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank
It was hoped that the agreement was the first step towards complete peace, but no other Arabs states were prepared to make a peace agreement. Arab leaders denounced Sadat and isolated Egypt for years. Sadat was assassinated in
by Egyptian soldiers during a military parade, believing him to be a disgrace to Islam for his deal with the Israelis
With lessened Egyptian pressure, Begin increased the number of settlements in the West Bank for 45 to 112 within 6 years, and put down opposition with great firmness
What lead to the invasion
After Camp David , Begin could openly attack the PLO, which was based in Lebanon. It had moved in
. Syria also had growing influence
Israel set up the
South Lebanon Army (SLA)
which consisted of Lebanese christians
, Israel invaded south Lebanon, following a PLO attack on an Israeli bus, killing
They were able to advance quite into the country (and kill may Palestinians and Lebanese along the way) by
, but they withdrew form the majority of the country for the exception of a thin strip at the boarder.
Tension between Israel and the PLO continued after the invasion, and Israel invaded again in
with the intention of destroying the PLO and reducing Syrian influence. They also wanted to install a christian government. The name for the invasion was
'Operation Peace for Galilee'
It was meant to be a quick invasion, however it took 3 years for the final Israeli soldiers to withdraw. Resistance was fierce and the siege of Beirut lasted 3 months.The PLO pulled out by
and moved to Tunisia. They failed to install a christian government, however, simply increasing Syrian influence.
700 Israelis were killed
19,000 Palestinian and Lebense (civilians mainly) were killed
The invasion was condemned worldwide, and caused unease amongst Israelis
The situation was made even worse with the massacre of Palestinian refugee camps (
16 Sept 1982
. Over a thousand Palestinians were killed at the hands of the SLA, however the Israelis were at hands and didi nothing to prevent the massacre. This lead to mass demonstrations in Tel Aviv
The Israelis withdrew by
, but kept the
near the border. Begin retired in
due to the invasion and the reaction it garnered. He went into seclusion until he died in