independent variable : what you change
dependent variable : what you measure
control variable : what you keep the same
aerobic respiration (word) glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + energy
aerobic respiration (symbol) C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂ --> 6CO₂ + 6H₂O
anaerobic respiration (animals) glucose --> lactic acid + energy
anaerobic respiration (plants) glucose --> ethanol + carbon dioxide + energy
energy in food (J) mass of water (g) x temp change (ºC) x 4.2
energy per gram of food (J/g) = energy in food (J) / mass of food (G)
photosynthesis (word) carbon dioxide + water ---(sunlight)---> glucose + oxygen
photosynthesis (chemical) 6CO₂ + 6H₂O ---(sunlight)---> C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
Mass = Moles * Formula Mass
Moles = Concentration * Volume
Forces and Motion
s = d ÷ t. speed = distance ÷ time.
w = m x g. weight = mass x gravity.
d = m � v. density = mass ÷ volume.
p = F ÷ a. pressure = force ÷ area.
m = F x d. moment = force x perpendicular distance from pivot.
a = (v-u) ÷ t. acceleration = change in velocity ÷ time.
F = m x a. Force = mass x acceleration.
(mv - mu) = F x t. change in momentum = Force x time.
p = m x v. momentum = mass x velocity.
GPE = mgh. GPE = mass x gravity x height.
W = F x d. work done = force x distance.
E = c x m x θ. energy = specific heat capacity x mass x change in temperature.
Efficiency (%) = (useful energy out ÷ total energy in) x 100.
KE = ½mv2. Kinetic Energy = 0·5 x mass x velocity2.
W = E. work done = energy transferred.
P = E ÷ t. power = energy ÷ time.
P = V x I. power = voltage x current.
Q = I x t. charge = current x time.
E = V x Q. energy = voltage x charge.
Total cost = number of units x cost per unit.
V = I x R. voltage = current x resistance.
E = V x I x t. energy = voltage x current x time.
v = f x λ. velocity = frequency x wavelength.