Political Change 1989 - 90 (1990 (Democratisation had succeeded in…
Political Change 1989 - 90
Gorbachev aims to shift power back over to the ‘Government branch’ away from the party.
19th Party Conference
From 1989 onwards Soviet citizens had the right to vote in elections.
There were no other political parties, but for the first time citizens could vote for radical, moderate or independent candidates
During the election :
Nationalists who wanted to break up the Soviet Union used the election to campaign for independence.
Yeltsin emerged as a popular figure.
March – April 1989
Communists won 80% of the seats in the Congress of people’s deputies.
Several high ranking communists were defeated.
Radicals did well – Yeltsin won 89% of the vote in Moscow
A formal opposition emerges
Yeltsin and Sakharov form the Inter-Regional Deputies Group – IRDG.
radical anti-communist agenda including the introduction of private property and greater autonomy for the republics.
They essentially act as a formal opposition.
Assemblies are set up in all ‘Republics’ of the USSR and elections held
Russia a group called ‘Democratic Russia’ wins 85% of votes.
Leningrad – an anti-communist group takes 80% of seats.
Democratisation had succeeded in weakening the Communist Party, but had not produced a strong ‘Government’.
created problems for Gorbachev who needed a strong central authority to push through his economic reforms.
Republic assemblies are set up and given some powers over local decisions.
Yeltsin demands a new constitution that strips the Communist Party of its leading role.
Congress of the People’s deputies of the Soviet Union – Established 13t July 1988
Following his appointment as president, Gorbachev was granted 18 months of emergency powers to deal with the economic crisis.
Use Soviet troops to restore order, particularly in the non-Russian Republics.
censor the press
As a result he was criticised by radicals for abandoning reform and introducing a new form of dictatorship.