International and Internal Situation in 1953. (1952-53: start of a new…
International and Internal Situation in 1953.
Why did WW2 begin?
As leader of Germany Hitler introduced Nazi policies, built up Germany’s army and invaded Austria and Czechoslovakia.
By 1939 Britain and France were worried about Hitler’s aggressive foreign policy and warned him that if he invaded Poland they would declare war.
On 1st Sept 1939 Germany invaded Poland, on 3rd Sept Britain and France declared war on Germany
Why did America join the war?
December 1941 the Japanese, Hitler’s allies, bombed the US Navy at Pearl Harbour in Hawaii.
Over 2000 US soldiers were killed.
The USA, now declared war on Japan and Germany
Germany and USSR
Hitler had long made it clear that he intended to destroy the USSR. As a Fascist Hitler wanted to destroy communism and he was racist towards the Slavic people of Russia who he wanted to make into slaves.
Germany had signed a Non Aggression Pact with the USSR in May 1939, in which both countries agreed not to fight each other, but to share Poland between them. By May 1940 Britain was the only country still fighting Germany
June 1941 Germany launched a surprise attack on the USSR, and German armies drove deep into Russian territory at a rate of 70km a day. Within a few months German armies were near the capital Moscow.
German troops were ruthless in Russia, since they believed the Slavic people to be inhuman. Millions of Russians suffered
By 1945 Britain and the USA had control of much of Western Europe, whilst the USSR had control over most of Eastern Europe
The Berlin Blockade
West Berlin was stranded, with only one months worth of food and coal left.
24 June, 1948 Stalin orders that all railways, canals and roads that connect West Berlin with West Germany be closed.
The Berlin Airlift, begins immediately, lasts for ten months.
1952-53: start of a new phase in the Cold War
First hydrogen bomb tested by the US
Dwight Eisenhower is elected US President with a commitment to victory in the Cold War
Stalin considers a new world war inevitable
Stalin dies, a new leadership emerges in the Kremlin. It proclaims the goal of peaceful coexistence
Release of GULAG prisoners begins
The war in Korea continues. Pres. Eisenhower approves a military plan for winning in Korea which includes use of atom bombs
July: Armistice signed in Korea