Chapter 9: What are the major methods of Data Collection? (Constructed,…
Chapter 9: What are the major methods of Data Collection?
Fundamental Principle of mixed research: To get high quality research, there must be thoughtful mixing of methods, procedures, & other paradigm characteristics
include types of mixing
both quantitative & qualitative data are obtained through one method
mixing of other research ingredients
sampling methods & data analysis methods
2 or more methods of data collection are used
to self-report data tool as part of a study; used to obtain information about thoughts, feelings, attitudes, beliefs, values, etc.
to measure attitudes, personality, self-perceptions, aptitude, & performance of research participants; quantitative research
group interview where moderator leads discussion with small group of individuals to examine how they feel about a topic
qualitative data collectors
composed of 6-12 participants
between interviewer and interviewee
interview protocol that includes the items, response categories, instructions, etc.
Closed quantitative interviews - usually written on paper for in person interviews & shown on computer screen for telephone interviews
open-ended questions and provide qualitative data
interview guide approach - specific topics and/or open-ended questions are asked in any order
standardized open-ended interview - open-ended questions asked in specific order & exactly as worded.
informal conversational interviews - spontaneous, loosely structured, often occur at unexpected times
watching the behavioral patterns of people in certain situations
Naturalistic observation - done out in the real world where behavior naturally occurs
Laboratory observation - done in the lab or setting set up by researcher
structured; involves standardization of each
When the observation takes place
What is observed
Where the observation takes place
Who is observed
How the observation are done
Results are counts, frequencies, or percentages
observing all potentially relevant phenomena & taking extensive field notes
Participant as observer
Constructed, Secondary, or Existing Data
Constructed data - constructed by research participants; drawings, diaries, recordings, etc.
Secondary or existing data - data collected, recorded, or left behind at an earlier time.
personal documents - anything written, photographed, or recorded for private purposes
Official documents - written, photographed, or recorded by some type of public or private organization
Physical data - any physical trace left by people as they take part in activities
Archived research data - originally used for research purposes an then stored for potential use later