Impact of training on lifestyle disease (Atherosclerosis (Build up of…
Impact of training on lifestyle disease
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a term fro all diseases of the heart and blood circulation.
Main cause of death in the western world and includes:
Coronary heart disease
Build up of fatty deposits that form a hard plaque on the arterial walls.
Narrowing of the lumen, reduces the space for blood flow and increases the likelihood of blood clots forming.
Arterial walls become thick and hardened, reducing their ability to vasodilate and constrict to regulate blood pressure.
Hypertension = high blood pressure.
Coronary heart disease
Results from atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, which supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood.
Reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply limits the cardiac muscle's ability to respire and an angina or heart attack may occur.
If a piece of fatty plaque breaks away from an arterial wall, a blood clot may form.
If the clot blocks the coronary artery, it will cut off oxygen supply to an area of the cardiac muscle causing the death of cells and permanent damage.
A stroke is caused by a blockage in cerebral artery cutting off the blood supply to the brain, or a blood vessel bursting within or on the surface of the brain.
The effects of training
Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Exercise can reduce risk by
Regular training, especially that associated with cardiovascular adaptation, can:
Reduce levels of blood lipids (fats) and overall cholesterol and increase the proportion of HDL to LDL cholesterol; this will slow the development of atherosclerosis.
Prevent hardening and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls due to regular vasoconstriction and dilation; this will slow the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension.
Decrease blood viscosity and the resistance to blood flow; this will help to prevent blood clots from forming and reduce blood pressure.
Increase coronary circulation as coronary arterioles gain an increased diameter and density; with will help to reduce the incidence of heart attacks.
Lead to cardiac hypertrophy, increased ventricular contractility and stroke volume, which increases the efficiency of the heart; resting hear rate can lower and the strain on the heart is reduced; this will lower blood pressure and help reduce the incidence of heart attacks.
Decrease body fat and help to manage weight; which will reduce strain on the heart.
Increase blood flow and oxygen transportation to the muscle cells, making it easier to perform exercise and reduce the onset of fatigue; this will reduce the strain placed on the heart and lower blood pressure.
Reduce the risk of a stroke my 27% by lowering blood pressure and maintaining a healthy weight.