Air Law 2: Procedures (Approaches (Inst. App. Proced.
Design dictated by…
Air Law 2: Procedures
Inst. App. Proced.
EX: Min Sector Altitude(MSA) & Terminal Arrival Altitude (TAA)
- Design dictated by TERRAIN
- Type of operation, AC, Type & siting of Nav Aids, Airspace restrictions
- ATCU resp. for describing proced. if pilot unfamiliar UNLESS AC cleared for Str8-in app.
- LEARN AC Catergories vs App. Speeds
-> VAT = 1.23 * VS1G Vel. At Threshold
-> A<90, B=120, C=140, D=165
- Provide At least 300m(984ft) ObstClr within 25nm of app. NavAid. AC can only descend below IF:
-> AeroD & terrain visible & will remain so
-> AC is radar vectored
-> AC flying a procedure
- MSA quadrant on plate based on Mag Track
- Once inst. proced. started it MUST BE COMPLETED AS PUBLISHED, even if flown visually!!
-> Unless other instructions from ATC
- Limited if RVR below specified minimum:
-> Non-Precn: Not <300m (1,000ft) AAL
-> Precn: Not past outer marker
- If RVR falls below limits AFTER passing the above then the app. may continue to DH/DA or MDH/MDA
Precision Procedures (Rwy app)
Non-Precision (aerodrome app.)
- ILS CAT I/II/III, MLS & PAR (Precision App. Radar)
- Gives azimuth & height above threshold
- Protected Areas within 1/2 scale deflection of CDI, if out then missed app. proced.
- Missed approach if @ DH/DA & reqd visual ref. not seen
-> DA/DH calcs in OpsMan SET BY OPERATOR
- Loss of G/S = NON-PRECISION app. or missed app.
DH/DA, MDH/MDA: depends on AC category, set by operatorOCH/OCA (OC = Obstacle Clearance): Set by state
- VOR, NDB, Circling - VM(C), Glideslope out, SRA (Surv. Radar App.)
- When no grnd eqpmnt can provide height data to AC
- MDA/MDH (M = min) & Missed App. Pt (MAPt).
- If @ MDA/H b4 MAPt then fly level til acquire visual ref. to land or hit MAPt for missed app.
- AC MUST PASS OVER MAPt!!!
- DH/A or MDH/A can never be < OCH/OCA
- Non-precision ref from the Aerod elv. or the threshold if >7ft below aeroD elv.
Str8 In App.
- It's part of an Inst. App.
- IFR flight can be cleared 4 Viz App. if:
-> pilot can maintain visual reference to terrain
-> OR ceiling is at or above approval approach level
-> OR pilot reports at any time during inst. App. that met conditions allow a Viz App. and Lnding
- It need not be VMC !!
- EX: Separation shall be provided by ATC between cleared AC & other arrivals & departures
- must still follow the profile of the instrument approach!!
Established on NDB
Primary & Secondary Areas
- For a non-precision approach is where FAT (Final App. Track) converges with the runway heading of : 30º or less
- Primary is 1/2 width of protected area (in middle)
- Secondary = 1/4 either side or primary
- Full obstacle clearance 300m (or 600m for mountains) is applied over the primary area, reducing to: ZERO at outer edges of secondary area
ILS categories - LEARN TABLE!!
SYS MIN <> Min DH!!!!! min DH is AC dependent!!
- CAT I - Press. Alt - Sys. Min 200ft(60m) DH>= 200ft (60M) - >= 550m
- CAT II - Rad Alt. - Sys. Min 100ft(30m) DH 100-200ft (30M) - >= 350m
- CAT IIIA - Rad Alt. - <100 (30M) or no DH - >= 200m
- CAT IIIB - <50ft (15m) or no DH - >=50 to 200m
- CAT IIIC - Radio Alt no DH limits, guidance Rwy & taxiway
Approach Procedure Segments - LEARN DIAGRAM!!
Accuracy of fixes
- Arrival: Transition En-Route to App.
- Initial App: AC left en-route structure & enter instr. app. proced.
- Intermediate App.: AC’s speed & config adjusted to prep. for final app.
- Final App: Alignment and descent for landing made
- Missed App: Must be followed if app. cannot be continued
- ILS Localiser BEST FOR: Track Guidance & Bearing
- NDB BEST FOR: Overhead posn.
STAR (Standard Arrival Routes) - Begins at END OF ENROUTE and ends at IAFIAF to IF (DR(Dead Reckoning) Segment = if TG to IF N/A)
Non Precision with FAF
- EX: Max intercept for DR segment = 45deg
- EX: Inbound leg is limited to 10nm
SDF - Step Down Fix
- final approach segment begins at the FAF and ends on landing
- Dist. FAF->Threshold: Optimum = 5nm, Max = 10nm
Non-Precision No FAF
- If sensitive area then min height reqd, can step down to min height, fly level til DME dist then descend more
- EX: AC can begin to let down to MDA/MDH once established on the FAT (Final App. Track)
Specific data for ILS/MLS
Calc of OCH/OCA (EXAM!!! PT/SF)
- AC cat vs dist between wheel & GP aerial
-> A&B = 6m, C&D = 7m
- GP min 2.5º max 3.5º (Cat II/III 3º)
Calc of OCH/OCA for VM(C)
- Fixed Margin for MOC for the final segment. Fixed margin for all AC
-> 90m w/o FAF
-> 75m w FAF
-> MOC A & B = 90m
-> MOC C & D = 120m
- OCH shall not be LESS THAN: A = 120m, B +30, C +30
- Optimum on final approach – not to exceed 5.2% (about 3º GP)
- Max permissible = 6.5%
- State approval reqd for any gradients >6.5%
- Generic term for Procedure turn, base turn or racetrack
- Procedure Turn 45/180: turn 45 deg out, for A & B 1min, for C,D and E = 1m15. You then do a rate 1 turn to reciprocate your track
- Base Turn: Out on 1 track, then rate 1 turn, return on another track. U AREN'T RECIPROCATING
- Racetrack - No EX Qs!
- Turning Pt(TP): When u come to a DME TP it takes priority over timing, you MUST TURN on reaching any turning point published in the proced
- EX: What is the name of the turn from inbound to outbound ?
- Track reversal (cos Procedure turn, Base turn and Racetrack are all track reversal)
- EX: …where track is reciprocated?
- A procedure turn
Missed App - LEARN!!!
- MUST START AT MAPt!!! But can fly at alt/height higher than proced
- Aim: Ensure the MOC isn't infringed throughout the proced
- Initial Phase (No turns)
- Intermediate Phase (turns <15deg)
- Climb established->50m obst clearance can be kept
- 2.5% grad, obstacle clearance 30m
- Final Phase (Any turns)
- 50 obst clearance can be kept->AC starts new app/hold/goes enroute
RNAV approaches - Based on VOR/DME co-located – non precision
EX: What is the most important factor with regards to instrument approaches ????
- T/O VFR minima in CTR: Grnd Viz >5km OR Cloud Clng >1500ft
- ATC Clearance Reqd prior to any IP!
- Clearance has: Callsign, Limits, SID, Lvl (if diff from SID), SSR, other info
- Plates reqd on AC, if not ATC can can read it out
- MOC = 300m(1000ft) [600m in mountains!] based on highest obstacle in 5nm
- SID: Std Instrument Proced.
- Design Dictated by surrounding terrain!
- All Engines running
- Proced. Design Gradient (PDG): 3.3% unless otherwise stated
- Pilot compensate for wind EXCEPT IF RADAR VECTORED!!
- (EX)Obstacle clearance @ DER = 0
- Str8 Departs
- Track <15⁰ from runway
- Track Guidance 20km(10.8nm) from DER
- Turning Departs
- Track >15⁰ from runway. Turn commenced on reaching a specified height
- Track Guidance 10km(5.4nm) AFTER TURN COMPLETE
- Str8 flight assumed til 120m(394ft) above DER & at least 90m MOC
- Turning Departures Max Speeds
- A =120, B= 165, C= 265, D=290
- Omni-direction Departs
- (EX) WHERE NO TRACK GUIDANCE PROVIDED!!
- Published Info
- MSA on plate out to 25nm
- Each SID named and Proced. described
- SIDs start @ DER end @ joining ATS route system
- AC MUST HAVE: 2 VOR, 1 DME, 1 ADF
- Use of FMS
- SIDs can be downloaded & auto. depart completed HOWEVER pilot MUST monitor with reference to direct input data (raw data)
SSR & ACAS - Ch 13
- If serviceable transponder carried, its operation is mandatory regardless of the provision of an ATC service
- Read-back: Pilots must respond to ATC squawk request reading back: both the Mode and the Code
- Pilots are not to squawk IDENT except: on instructions from the RADAR controller
- If already ID'd by SSR code THEN stick to this squawk DO NOT CHG TO 7700/7500 except if radio failure
Altitude Reporting - Mode C
- Pilot report alt/FL to nearest 100ft
- If within greater than ± 300 the transponder is unserviceable
Code Selection: SELECT STBY FIRST!!!! - > New code - > Select “ON"
- B4 Depart: Inform ATC ASAP, Enter “N” in item 10 of the Flight Plan
- Comply with local proceds
- If reqd by ATC – fly to nearest aeroD transponder can be fixed
ACAS (Airborne Collision Avoidance System)
- Traffic Advisory - Pilot not to manoeuvre
- Resolution Advisory - Only the minimum necessary to comply
- Promptly to return to that instruction or Flight Plan when conflict is resolved
- Notify ATC as soon as practicable of the deviation including its direction and when the deviation has ended.
- EX: Disregarding RA's
- the pilot visually identifies the conflicting traffic and decides no deviation from the current flight path is needed. ATC still needs informing
AC level using Mode C
- Level occupancy: Mode C indicates the allocated level +/- 300ft
- Maintaining a level: same as above
- Vacating a level: Mode C indicates that the aircraft is more than 300ft from the previously allocated level.
- Passing a level: Mode C indicates that the AC is within 300ft of a specified level in the climb or descent
- Reaching a level: same as above
- Independent - no radar separation
- Dependent - with radar separation
- Parallel Apprchs
- Regardless of weather all will be radar monitored
- All AC require full ILS/MLS
- Only straight-in approaches
- No Track Reverals!!
- Mode 1 - Independent Parallel Approach
- 30° max intercept
- 1 nm for LOC intercept, 2nm Str8 & lvl for G/S intercept
- Missed App. tracks MUST diverge by 30°
- 1035m (min) between rwy ctrlines
- Mode 2 - Dependent Parallel Approach
- same as Mode 1 except
- EX/PT/SF: 2 AC same LOC min separation = 3nm
- EX/PT/SF: 2 AC adjacent LOC min separation = 2nm
- EX/PT/SF: 915m (min) between rwy ctrlines
- Mode 3 - Simultaneous Instrument Departures
- Track post T/O must diverge by 15° each
- 760m (min) between rwy ctrlines
- A/C must be radar identified by at least 1nm from the DER
- Mode 4 - Segregated Departures & Arrivals
- EX: Segregated = when one parallel runway is used for landing and the other for departures!!
- EX: Max intercept angel = 45°
- 760m (min) between rwy ctrlines
Normal Operating Zone (NOZ) & No Transgression Zone(NTZ)
- Extends from threshold to where a/c is established on the FAT
- Applicable Mode 1
- If you fly within ½ scale deflection you will remain inside the NOZ
- The NTZ is located between the two extended centrelines
- Extends from threshold to where 1,000ft vertical separation is reduced
- ALL EX: Penetration by an a/c requires Controller intervention
- ALL EX: Must be at least 610m wide
- Wake Turbulence Separation MUST BE APPLIED IF:
- If the spacing between runways is less than 760m
- OR Flight paths of departing or arriving traffic cross at the same altitude (or within 1000ft below the higher level)
- Vert sep = 1000ft
- Approach Controller responsible
- Std Hold = Right
- Non Std AERODOME = LEFT Else = RIGHT
- Starts at Hold Fix
- Rate 1 or 25º AoB (whichever LESSER)
- Still Air 1min (<14000ft) ELSE 1.5min BUT DME Turn Pt take priority
- Pilots resp. for wind so maintain hdg and timings
- Speeds <14000ft: 230kt (280kt Turbulence)
- Speeds >14000ft: 240kt (280kt Turbulence)
- EX: CAT A and B up to 14000 170kt
- Enter hold based on MAG HDG & 5º flex either side
- Entry Sectors = POD (Parallel = 1, Offset = 2, Direct = 3)
-> P = 70º arc reciprocate
-> O = 30º arc reciprocate
-> D = direct entry
- Holding level to be established at least 5nm b4 hold fix
- Buffer Zone
-> Lowest holding alt (LHA) = MOC 300m (600m mtns)
-> Buffer zone 5 nms wide
-> MOC decreases in buffer til = ZERO at the extremity