Henry VIII''s divorce with Catherine of Aragon
Henry VIII''s divorce with Catherine of Aragon
The Case for Divorce
In 1524- henry ended marital relations with Catherine. In May 1527, the Spanish ambassador Chapuys made a report to Charles V that Henry had assembled a group of bishops and lawyers to a sign a declaration that his marriage to Catherine was invalid and henry had hoped that Pope Clement VI would annul the marriage on biblical grounds.
Catherine of Aragon had quickly discovered henry's intention from Chapuys- her response was that her marriage to Arthur had not been consummated. Howver, Henry had already shown an interest in Anne Boleyn which made Catherine's determination to protect her marriage even stronger and the task of Cardinal Wolsey in persuading the pope into granting an annulment even more difficult
a court assembled at Blackfriars court with the pope's meesanger Campeggio to pronounce on behaf of the pope . By 1529, although Catherine was still queen, it was Anne who played the main role in court life . Catherine continued to hold out for the decision if the papal court
in March 1529 a court opened in Blackfriars- Wolsey sought to put pressure on campeggio. Catherine of Aragon appeared at the hearing where she appeared fixed in her position as henrys legal wife. Catherine had made it clear that she would appeal to rome if the hearings went against her- Wolsey could do nothing about this.
in October 1529 Wolsey was replaced as Chancellor by Thomas More and a month later he called parliament- this parliament was to be use to put pressure on the pope to force him to change his mind about the annulment.
Fall of Thomas Wolsey
Because he failed to get the divorce?
did he fail to get the divorce on purpose? or was it because of Charles V and campeggio. henry put all his trust into Wolsey as legatus latre- he could act on the popes behalf- but not for everything though- so why couldnt Wolsey get it? REVISE
Because he was disliked?
Many noblemen were jealous of Wolsey because they wanted to take his position- Wolsey was rich and had good titles. He was also greatly disliked by the noblemen because of the tax he had put called the Amicable Grant- which put a tax on the rich people. He also started a new court chamber which allowed common, poor people to be in- which seemed like a good idea but became very chaotic so was unpopular and he took part in Enclosure- which cut off land- so meant? REVISE
Because of his corrupt behaviour?
he disobeyed vows of Chasity- he had a child. He rose an ass- many people thought this was a mockery of Jesus in a donkey. he turned up to court with servants etc. high amount fo mortuary fee- clergy are paid for the burial of dead people. Tithes go to clergy. the church takes up too much land. he had committed pluralism- as he held more than one parish- leading to absenteeism and meant there was an uneducated priest who couldnt really preach mass properly. REVISE
the Act of Attainder was put against him- he was still the Archbishop of York but he had his lands that he held taken away from him and given to Henry. He died on the way to his trial at Blackfriars Court. REVISE
What was Catherine's opinion?
she saw her marriage with henry as valid because she argued that she didnt consummate her marriage with Arthur.
she supported the book of deurtronomy which said that henry could marry his brothers childless widow
she was deeply catholic so saw marriage as a sacrament.
Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher were Catherine's supporters- they were both humanists. john was against Lutheranism and he was catherines adviser had wrote 7 books supporting Catherine of aragon . Thomas More and john fisher were both deeply catholic so did belive that Catherine's marriage was valid as it was a sacrament. Charles V and his ambassoder Eustace Chapuys and campeggio were aso supportive of Catherine and was the reason that they didnt get the divorce
Henry VII's supporters were Anne Boleyn obvuisly, Wolsey and Cranmer. Henry also wanted to get Francais the king of France's support of Anne and henry's marriage- so henry went to Calais- needed support of France, if he didnt have support from the Holy Roman Empire. So Francais gave permission for henry and Anne to consummate the marriage and Anne became pregnant in 1533- picked up the pace and meant that Cranmer secretly married Anne and henry in 1533. REVISE
Anne Boleyn's love letters- if she sent them in 1527 then she just wanted to be queen?- 1533- was genuine about henry? REVSIE
Why did he want a divorce?
wanted to secure the Tudor dynasty- needed a male heir to do so- Catherine had Mary I in 1516- not legitimate heir. she was 40- menopausal- she kept having miscarriages. he was very conscious of the upheaval of the disputed succession of The War if the Roses
he had meeting with his bishops and lawyers saying that his marriage with Catherine was invalid because she had consummated marriage with henry's brother Arthur, and according to the Book of Leviticus, it said it would be an impurity to marry Catherine
why did the divorce fail?
Wolsey failed to get a divorce because of Catherine of aragons nephew Charles V who sacked rome in 1527 and help the pope as prisoner- so he couldnt come to divorce proceedings to have his say on 'the great matter'. so campeggio was sent on behalf of the pope and he wouldn't negotiate with Wolsey- so this is why Wolsey failed. REVISE