Were the peace treaties of 1919–23 fair? (Big three and what they wanted,…
Were the peace treaties of 1919–23 fair?
Big three and what they wanted
David Loyd George
Great Britain. British public wanted to make Germany pay however, George was concerned about the consequences of a harsh treaty. He wanted justice, not revenge. Half way between clemenceau and wilson. Wanted territory (colonies) devided by winners however, not germany smashed into pieces. They needed to recover a trading partener, therefore reparations should be reasonable. Army should be reduced but not so much that they would be unable to defend from France. War guilt; balme Germany and LON was indiferent.
America, wanted to make the world safe, make a fair peace. Developed 14 points, having the main points be disarmament of all and LON where all would solve problems without war. wanted to ensure Germany was not destroyed and not blame germany.
France, wanted revenge and punish Germany. Thought Germany should pay for war damage. Wanted Germany weakened to the point they would never invade again, wanted them split up and to never recover. Wanted dissarmament, severe reparations and alsace lorraine back. Germany excluded of LON. Blame Germany. France had suffered most of war damage and had the most casualities.
All wanted things for their own, wanted to benefit whilst the world was in ruins after war. They were ambicious. They wanted each different things and big three had to do not just what they wanted as great empires had collapsed. Reparations and self determination were hard to set and the Big Three often passed the buck, for example plebiscites and referendums, LON.
Impact of TOV on Germany
Territoy: Saar coalfield and Alsace Lorraine to France, Danzing free city, Poland given coridor to Baltic Sea, Germany not allowed to unite with Austria and Germany's former colonies were given to France and Britain.
Army: military power of Germany reduced, limited to 100,000 men and navy, 6 ships.
War Guilt: Germany had to accept guilt what provided justification for other points.
League of Nations: Germany was allowed to join only when proved to be peace loving.
Reparations: 6,600 million for war damage
Had to assume war guilt, had to pay absurd reparations having lost industrial areas such as the Ruhr. Military services were restricted making Germany unable to protect itself in addition to having lost all former colonies and have innocent people suffer with the terms of the treaty.
Germans had to accept consequences of loosing war, caused a lot of damage, terms were severe as tensions were very recent and people demanded revenge.
Treaty of Neuily, 1919
Dealt with Bulgaria. Lost land to greece, Romania, Yugoslavia and its access to mediteranean. Limitted to 20,000 volunteers, no airforce. Had to pay 100 million e on reparations.
Treaty of Trianon, 1920
Dealt with Hungary. Numerous territories went t Romania. Lost substancial amount of territoy and population. Limited to 34,000 volunteers and 3 patrol boats. Austro Hungarian empire dismantled. Lost pop. and resources and was meant to pay reparations but due to economy, never did.
Treaty of St.Germain, 1919
Dealt with Austria. Resticted to 30,000, no navy. Forbidden to reunite with Germany. Land given to poland and italy. Dismantled Austro Hungarian empire.
Treaty of Serves, 1920
Dealt with Turkey. Egypt, Tunisia, Morroco were turned into independent states or were under british/ french protection.
no reparations and had restricted army too.