Closed-class lexical categories: "Function…
Closed-class lexical categories:
Conjunctions connect things, be they words, phrases, or clauses
refer to paired conjunctions such as either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also.
They involve a conjunction at the beginning of each phrase or clause.
Subordinating conjunctions connect two clauses: a main clause and a dependent or subordinate clause.
Example: We ate all the cookies
because they were delicious
. This portion of the sentence is identified as a subordinate clause
A subordinate clause depends on the main clause to provide context or complete its meaning
Most subordinating conjunctions create subordinate clauses that often answer the questions “When?” “Why?” or “Under what conditions?”
Coordinating conjunctions connect words or phrases of the same category to create a coordinated phrase in that category
Identify coordinating conjunctions: "FANBOY" or for, and, nor, but, or, and yet.
Example: over the river
to the woods
Pronouns: Stand in for nouns or noun phrases
Indefinite pronouns: stand in for an unknown or unspecified element in a clause.
Example: One, anyone, someone, everyone, no one, etc.
Personal Pronouns: Have three persons (first, second, third), two numbers (singular, plural), and three cases (subject, object, possessive), as well as reflexive forms.
Examples: I, we, you, mine, me, us, ours, etc.
Interrogative pronouns: stand in for an unknown element in a clause in order to create a question.
Example: Who is coming to dinner?
Identify interrogative pronouns: e who/whom/whose, what, and which.
Demonstrative pronouns point to things either previously mentioned in the text or in the physical environment.
Identify Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, and those.
Example: I took the 47 bus—that is the one that goes downtown.
Relative pronouns act as the subject or object of a dependent/subordinate clause to link the clause to a preceding noun phrase.
Identify Relative pronouns: who/whom/whose, that, which, whoever/whomever, and whichever.
Example: The grammar that we are studying is riveting.
Determiners: Determiners encompass the class of function words that introduce noun phrases, often indicating.
Determiners precede the adjectives that modify nouns
Predeterminers: all, both, half. Twice, double, ten times.
Central determiners: This, these, Your, my. A/an, the. Whose, which.
Postdeterminers: Three, six. Third, seventh. Another, last, next.
Auxiliary verbs: “helping verbs” occur before main or “lexical” verbs in order to indicate time (will give), aspect (have given), modality (might give), or emphasis (do give), or to assist in the formation of negative (don’t give), interrogative (do you give?), and passive constructions (was given).
I may go
to the party, but then again I may not if I’m too busy.
Modals: Can, could. May, might. Shall, should. Will, would. Must.
Primary Auxiliaries: Be, have, do.
Marginal Auxiliaries: Used to, ought to, dare, need, be going to, have to, supposed to, start, have got to, had better.
: "A preposition is everywhere a squirrel can go with respect to a tree"
e.g., up/down/around/to/from/into/in/off/the tree
Prepositions occur before nouns or noun phrases and create a modifying connection between that noun (phrase) and a (verb), an adjective, or another noun.
Example: She turned