5202 Essay Plan Relationships, conflict, complimentary patterns // own…
5202 Essay Plan
Relationships, conflict, complimentary patterns // own ideas, evidence to back up //
Who? What? When? How? So what? What if? What next?
Although focus of DA in this essay, as this is where the majority of the research lies to date - more recent studies are starting to implicate other NTs such as serotonin and GABA.
Mental illness changes over time and culture - DSM is changing to reflect dimensions of condition, symptoms and severity - not sane / insane. Defining and categorising may not always be helpful
Personality itself is likely genetics + environment + learning + social experiences
Meds work for large percentage, but not everybody
Bio approach doesn't explain relapse / remission: must be influenced by environment / individual experiences
Prodromal phase where symptoms build gradually, what is the trigger? What if MHS could intervene before trigger?
Early intervention psychosis teams :!:
Nature Vs Nurture
Alone each approach is reductionist;
Bio - nerves and cells
Social - 'abnormal' criteria social constructions
ID - individual themselves
Evidence that SCZ is brain disease is similar to that for CSA factors, but not all CSA survivors dev SCZ, and not all Dx with SCZ have exp CSA; WHY?
Vulnerability to stress due to trauma, family situation etc. IDs?
Reaction to threat, betrayal, distortion - could distort brain?
Chicken and egg - cause or symptom, which came first, likely treating symptoms, but they may then have knock on effect on cause e.g. moving household environment could lower dopamine, less stress, restore 'normal' function in frontal cortex?
No one approach alone is conclusive in evidencing direct causation to SCZ - must be concluded that there is complex interaction between genes, environment, experiences and adversity, cultural norms which are brought up in and personal innate and learned capacity to cope with adverse experiences
Twin studies show high correlation for role of genetics, but also studies finding that deprived children with no family history at all are much more likely to be Dx with SCZ (Harrison et al, 2001)
SU experience and preferences must be taken into account
Personal accounts of recovery
No. of those who believe social cause vs biological cause
Rarely anything disputing the role of dopamine in SCZ, but no conclusive evidence as to whether this is cause or symptom - and if cause, what has contributed to this overabundance?
Individual differences must be taken into account
NICE Guidelines; therapy + medications :!:
(NHS FYFV) Integrated treatment plans;
personalised care at point of access
Imbalance in what UK psychiatrists believe as cause;
0.4% social, 46.1% bio, 53.5% both; ratio 1:115 believe bio
but maybe outdated :warning:
Kingdon et al, 2004
With up to 50% of literature ghost-written by pharma, what to believe? (Healy, 2003)
This essay will look at three perspectives and how they each have a role in a complex interplay between bio-psycho-social experiences of an individual
Likelihood that not one cause but a not yet understood interaction between many factors
e.g. correlation between CSA and SCZ but why? what is the cause? Is it environment, stress? why some people and not others? Is it individual optimal arousal levels / coping mechs?
Why is it important to study schizophrenia? (stats on hospitalisations / cost to health service and economy / level of distress caused / reduce stigma...
1/3 require institution, worst prognosis of ill MH (Jobe & Harrow, 2010)
Potential causes of ill health
Influencing factors in schizophrenia (three perspectives)
NTs, brain structure, environment, abuse, genetics, epigenetics, substance abuse, coping mechanisms (defense mechs), personality traits (some more susceptible), socio-economic status
What is schizophrenia? (Various definitions)
(Year 2 text book)
Psychotic disorder, thought disorder
well known, poorly understood
Greek - split brain
lifetime prevalence of 1%
varies across time, culture, gender (Mcgrath, 2006)
Bleuler, 1950 termed SCZ
Syndrome of disorders including hallucinations, delusions, etc
Kraeplin (1883) chemical imbalance
dementia praecox 'precocious madness'
cognitive and emotional impairments
What is health/mental health? What is ill mental health?
WHO - Complete positive physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease