Bandura - Social Learning Theory (SLT (How learning occurs... (Identify…
Bandura - Social Learning Theory
Processes occur between a stimuli and a response.
Behaviour is learned from the environment through observational learning.
There must be a role model; specifically someone with similar values, more powerful, respected.
Behaviour is developed through observation/copying.
A child is more likely to copy someone who is of the same gender, they look up to and want to be like.
Especially if they are
rewarded, interesting and easy to copy
Rewards may be extrinsic or intrinsic/tangible or intangible.
How learning occurs...
Identify with role model
Attention; notice behaviour
Imitation; copy behaviour
Retention; remembering behaviour
Reproduction; reproducing behaviour
Bobo Doll Experiment: He conducted a series of experiments on observational learning and found that children who observed an aggressive model made a far more imitative aggressive responses.
Increases the likelihood of imitation.
Repeat or duplicate behaviors for which others are being rewarded.
Process of imitation is known as
For example, trends in teenagers, such as hair/clothing.
A role model is a person whose behaviour can be emulated by others, especially by younger people.
Learning through observation of the consequences of actions for other people.
When a learned observes someone they identify with and the role model receives reinforcement, the learner is motivated to imitate the behaviour, as if they have been reinforced themselves.
In society C are surrounded by many influential models, such as
parents, characters on TV, friends within their peer groups,
at school. These models provide examples of behaviour to
C pay attention to these models and observe their behaviour. At a later time they may imitate the behaviour.
Will be more likely to imitate if they are the same gender.
The child is more likely to imitate if the behaviour was rewarded. Reinforcement can be internal (feeling happy), external (rewarded from parents), positive or negative.
They will look at the consequences for their role model - this is known as vicarious reinforcement.
The motive to observe and imitate their behaviour is that they have a quality that the child would like to possess.
:check:EYW can reward with stickers/praise. :green_cross:However, they have to discourage the imitation of misbehaving children.
:green_cross:Extrovert children may be rewarded more (attention). Also, if a child behaves poorly the EYW should deal with it appropriately i.e. negative punishment (time our).
:check: EYW should lead with example - good table manners
Causes changes in behaviour
Self esteem/self image/awareness/comparison
Physical changes in puberty is a result of learned behaviour.
Identify with friends
Imitate to gain approval
Change behaviour to fit in/join group activity/become part of a group/cooperate with residents and carers
Carers should encourage independence in personal hygiene - will be praised if they shower themselves. May lead to vicarious reinforcement i.e. " I showed myself today", "I might do that too".
Social and Emotional development
Need to fit in with social group
Copy behaviour of model is rewarded
Copying role models improves self esteem
Friendships develop/sexual relationships
Imitate + copy from role models
Will depend upon experience from role models
May be fluent and expressive
Neglect in early years may lead to limited language
May have restricted code if parents/carers language is limited
Low self esteem can lead to greater imitation