Pope vs. King
The king was fearful of the fact that the people could have power and they were mad at the Popes for having more power than them. This caused rivalry between King Henry and Pope Gregory. Pope Gregory excommunicated the King but eventually gave him another chance
Pope: Popes were considered to be God's representative and taught people about their religion. They had the most power and controlled everyone in the church. The pope made sure that the church ran smoothly and was supposed to be a good role model for young children.
King: The king had the most power in the land but when the Popes came around they had virtually none. The king was at the top of the hierarchy and ruled everyone under him. That included almost everyone but the Pope. Kings had a lot of responsibilities and had a lot they had to do
Reconquest and Spanish Inquisition
By the 1200s the Christians had three kingdoms . Princess Isabella and Ferdinand wanted everyone to be Catholic so they drove the Muslims out. Isabella and Ferdinand joined their two kingdoms when they married to create Spain.
Joan of Arc was burned at stake when the English gave her to the Inquisition. Later she was known as a Saint and given the name Joan of Arc.
The hundred year war ended in 1453 with the English having won two wars between them and France having won only one.
English Law and Democracy
The Magna Carta was written and England and meant to give rights to the common people but caused the king to have less power.
The Magna Carta inspired the US Constitution and had connections to the popularity of Democracy.
When the king died a noble named Harold Godwinson took the throne.
Geography of Europe
The geography was great for farming and for natural borders. Many kingdoms were in Europe because there were so many good places to start a kingdom.
Rivers were used for trading and agriculture. Mountains and rivers were used for natural borders.
The climate wasn't consistent and had many different seasons. The mountains were warmer and the was more rain in the center of Europe.
Spread of Christianity
Christianity really grew during the time of Constantine the Great and the religion then spread to Europe and Asia
Native Americans were exposed to Christianity and many didn't like the idea of having another religion
The first group of Christians were Jewish, monks are members of the church and monasteries were occupied by them
Nobles were responsible for Vassals and serfs and the manor of the agricultural state. Nobles were given land by the king in exchange for loyalty.
Trade greatly influenced feudalism because it caused cities to become larger and stronger and for stronger governments to be formed. The land on the fiefs were called manors. The hierarchy had four different sections. King was the highest, then the nobles, then the knights, and lastly the peasants
Feudalism began in the 8th century but became popular after the Roman empire fell. It was a mix of legal and military customs in Medieval Europe. The knights protected the fiefs and were ruled by the nobles of the area.
The second one started in 1147-1149 and failed because the Christians lost. And they lost Jerusalem.
The third one start in 1189-1192 and ended in a truce but it fell apart. In 1202-1204, the Christians became greedy but they were able to get rich.
The very first started in 1095 because they wanted Jerusalem back. The first crusade started in 1096-1099 and they started to take Jerusalem from the Muslims and was quite successful
The first outbreak happened in 1331 in China and their population was eventually cut in half. It reached Europe in 1346 and by 1349 it had spread to England.By 1351 it reached Russia, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia
Some symptoms were: fatigue, fever, muscle aches, shock, diarrhea, weakness, shortness or breath, vomiting, chills, headaches, coughing blood, bleeding, swelling, and abdominal pain.
The Black Death started in the 1300s somewhere in the Gobi Desert. It caused the European economy to collapse. One in two people died from the plague.
Thomas Aquinas was a Dominican friar who inspired many writings and ways of teaching fro the Catholic Church
The Oxford University was used in 1096 and was eventually founded in 1231. The universities were used for the same things they are today
There were two main styles of churches, Romanesque and Gothic. Romanesque inspired the Gothic buildings which were more modern.