Lecture 1: Urbanisation in the Global South
in the Global South
6 global "megatrends" relevant to cities
Urbanisation, demographics and the emerging middle class
Sustainability (pressure on natural resources and the environment)
Industrial clusters and global value chains
Governance (a diminution of trust in public authorities)
Why are we studying a combination of development and cities and urbanisation?
Since 1950's and post-colonialism, we see independent nations rapidly developing in urban cities. Cities in the Global South have become such powerhouses that they have new challenges to overcome/adapt e.g. pop densities.
Resulted in SDGs to have a "urban goal" presence
Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary General of the UN (2016)
declares this the "urban century"
estimates that 60% of global population will live in urban cities by 2030
Because of such unprecedented urbanisation, many cities in the global south have thus grown unplanned.
E.g. Many cities suffer deficits in infrastructure, service provision, governance and financial resources.
Many more living further out from the city in commuter towns due to large house prices / gentrification / pop densities. As many as 3 billion/50% of the world's urban pop could live in slums by 2050
Urbanisation: A diverse process
Rate of Urbanisation in 2014:
32% in India
54% in China
85% in Brazil
Outlining the last 50 years of post-colonial trends in urbanisation in the global south.
Cities account for 80% of global GDP and thus are engines of growth. This results in competitiveness of cities where they are eager to brand themselves.