Tectonics Key Idea 1.9 a,b,c (managing hazard events (focuses on key…
Tectonics Key Idea 1.9 a,b,c
Government hazard-mitigation strategies
Diverting lava flows
What is it?
building barriers and digging channels to try and divert lava flows into safer directions, away from people and communities
Example: worked for the
1983 eruption Mount Etna
Why is it ineffective?
path taken by lava is hard to predict, hard to know where to dig the channels
terrain has to be suitable, with a downward slope
may push the lava towards another community
What is it?
used in all stages of disaster management cycle
used to help identify evacuation routes that should be used
help with rescue and recovery options
Nepal 2015 earthquake
gave information about the locations and rough population sizes of major towns and cities in Nepal
areas effected by earthquake
locations of airports and airstrips
helped aid agencies to identify the areas most effected effected, then to find the nearest location where aircraft carrying emergency supplies and relief workers could land
Land- use Zoning
What is it?
process by which local government planners regulate how land in a community may be used.
In areas at risk from tectonic hazards it is an effective way to protect both people and property
Mount Taranaki, New Zealand
In high risk areas
settlements tend to be limited
certain structures and buildings prohibited, e.g. nuclear power plant and hodpitals
some comunities may be resettled, suich as along coast at risk from tsunami
development in areas that provide natural protection will be limited, e.g. mangroves
common in HIC countries
less common in developing countries
only effective in wealthier countries where the government is not corrupt.
Hazard- resistant design and engineering defenses
collapsing buildings are one of the main causes of death and damage in tectonic hazards
What is it?
new buildings and bridges designed to resist ground shaking
roofs of houses near volcanoes sloped to reduce ash build up
buildings at rsik from tsunami can be elevated
-exist/ing buildings modified
-protective structures like sea walls to slow impact of tsunami
not all buildings need to be high tech. In Pakistan some houses built form bales of straw held together with plastic netting
however most resistant design is very expensive , only available in rich countries.
managing hazard events
important in protecting communities from the impacts of hazard events
focuses on key players involved in..
- strategies meant to avoid, delay or prevent hazard events
strategies designed to reduce the impacts of hazard events, once they have occurred
modify the event...
Hazard- adaptation strategies
After Haiti earthquake, a live map was set up. Locals provided information, such as where people were trapped, or where food and water was needed
rescue workers began using these maps, that were constantly updated. Uses
information, as well as satellite imagery.
in the future, crisis maps can be used when next earthquake hits, and can be used to improve infrastructure and disaster preparedness
Modelling hazard impact
Information fed into computer systems which then model the effects of a disaster
also allow scientists to compare the effects of different scenarios ( e.g. effects on community if sea wall is built or not)
can be used by decision makers to help them develop plans and strategies to reduce impact of hazards, and target resources more effectively
High- tech monitoring
satellite communication technology- helps transmit data from monitoring equipment
phone technology- used to communicate rapid warnings, used in japan 2011.
Early warning systems- give people more time to evacuate
GIS- creates hazard maps
technology helps communities become less vulnerable. Monitoring systems help scientists learn about disasters, in the hope of predicting them
failry effective, can go wrong hovers. Like in Hawaii when false alarm was seen.
education and public awareness can help reduce vulnerability
helps people understand what they can do to protect themselves, during and after hazard
regularly practicing emergency procedures, in Japan an annual Disaster Prevention Day is held
encourage households to produce emergency preparedness kits
provide effective educational materials, such as construction knowledge
helps reduce social impact
doesn't help against economic and environmental damage
Key Players in Managing loss
role of NGO's
important when local government is struggling to respond.
can provide funds, coordinate search and rescue efforts, and help with reconstruction plans
very important in
Pakistan earthquake 2005
role of insurance in hazard management
natural disasters are very expensive, economic cost is always increasing
insurance can help communities recover, yet in many countries people dont have insurance
role of aid donors
short- term aid
restoring water supplies
long- term aid
food, clean water
role of communities in managing loss
local people often first to respond in a disaster and play an important role.
crucial in immediate search and rescue
aid can sometimes takes days to arrive, local people have to understand recovery steps themselves
often involved in long term strategies for rebuilding
Community preparedness and adaptation
in lower income countries it is important to develop suitable preparedness plans and educate local residents
local knowledge is important, e.g. during 2004 tsunami Thailand's Moken tribe noticed unusual movements in the bay of Bengal and ran for the hills, saving the village
preparedness activities include:
creating list of vulnerable people who need special assistance
providing first aid courses