Theories of relationships (Attachment theory - Bowlby (Attachments styles …
Theories of relationships
Fundamental need to belong
Baumeister and Leary
important as food, shelter, water, survival. evolutionary basis. long term romantic bonds facilitate reproduction and help raise dependent offspring. babies depend on mother, mother depends on husband for resources. Parent-Offspring attachments ensure infants are protected until independent
Universal, seen in every culture
guides social cognition. Sekides - easier to remember info about someone when they are a couple.
Allows self expansion - expand and grow as more interactions
need to belong is satiable - Nezlek - students meaningful interactions are with same 6 people
transactive memory - Wegner - shared information, know partners info
negative consequences when needs not met
Attachment theory - Bowlby
early attachments key for future relationship success. Secure base. Working models of themselves and of relationships
Spitz - social deprivation
babies raised in institution for 2+yrs, lack of affection, confined to cots, less socially/mentally advanced than babies with adequate care and higher mortality rate
Attachments styles - Ainsworth
measured interactions between mothers and infants after they had been left in room with stranger. secure - easy to calm, insecure avoidant, insecure resistant
Hazan and Shaver
in adulthood - secure - close, healthy relationships. avoidant - uncomfortable with closeness, hard to trust. anxious - reluctant to get close, insecure, more emotional highs and lows.
Social exchange theory Homans
cost-reward ratio. minimax strategy - minimise cost and maximise benefits to get a profit.
Thibaut and Kelley - need to understand structure of relationship to see if profit will be made
equity theory - beneficial to both partners. distributive justice used - norm of fairly sharing goods.
sometimes mutual obligation just as key in friendships - ability and effort than goods sharing
expected outcomes compared to actual outcomes. past and current. if profit exceeds CL - satisfying relationship
explains breakdown and different CL
Relational dialectics - Baxter
people have different preferences with different tensions. Autonomy vs connection, openness vs closeness. Mismatch - breakdown , can negotiate by communicating, relationships in constant flux