Pedagogical Theories (Wk 3 & 6) (Constructivism: learning is a self…
Pedagogical Theories (Wk 3 & 6)
learning is a self regulated process that builds on learner's existing knowledge, learners are active participants
factors that influence development
Maturation. Innate/ biological
Activity. Learning by experimenting through mental and physical activity
Social Interaction. Interactions with others (parents, peers, teachers) that contribute to learning experiences
Equilibration. Achieving cognitive balance between what is familiar and unfamiliar through assimilation and accommodation
We learn through encountering slightly different perspectives that challenge thinking and stimulate cognitive development.
conflict within child's thinking resulting from social interaction.
Adjusting an existing schema to fit a new experience
in info is used to establish a new model or schema
A mental image or cluster or related ideas used to organise knowledge and make sense of new experiences
1. Sensorimotor (0-2)
Dominated by sensory activities (hearing, touching, smelling, seeing, tasting)
2. Pre-operational (2- 6/7)
Thinking still limited: appearance dominates perceptions and understanding
Child cannot carry out actions mentally, must manipulate real materials. Create own stories, draw representational pictures, imaginary friends, role-play games, egocentricism
3. Concrete operations (7-11/12)
Can represent events mentally
Ability to operate logically on surroundings
Classifying objects mentally
Compensating for changes
Seeing from another's viewpoint
Child can mentally manipulate and thing logically about objects that are present
4. Formal operations (12+)
Some hypothetical reasoning in high school
Can form hypotheses and solve problems systematically
The stage the child is at, not the age is important
Study focus on the errors children make when they solve problems
Children's thinking is different and less efficient than adults
Under- or overestimation of abilities
Children show evidence of deductive reasoning earlier than Piaget proposed
Research generally supports sequences of changes
Development is not a matter absence and sudden presence of skills
Describing children in terms of what they cannot do, negative
Piaget focused on child's role, not corrective feedback and teaching
Doesn't sufficiently take into account memory, motivation and emotion
Insufficient attention to individual differences among children e.g. gender, cultural background
Children don't all develop the same way and in the same time frame. Children use different strategies for the same problems.
human development is socially situated and knowledge is constructed through interaction with others. Language and culture play a big role.
Human mental abilities
Lower. Inherited, involuntary capacities e..g vision, hearing. Controlled by external objects and events.
Higher mental functions. Developed through social interaction e.g. logical and abstract thinking, language. Operate in the head, used to control lower mental functions. Used to solve problems concerning external objects and events.
Zone of Proximal Development
Distance between person's current level of competence on a task and what they can achieve with guidance
Emerging skills (Chapter 2)
Bio-ecological Social Cultural Theory