Computer Environments as Metacognitive Tools for Enhancing Learning…
Computer Environments as Metacognitive Tools for Enhancing Learning (Azevedo 2005)
Difficulties with conceptually rich domains
students are required to analyze the learning situation
set meaning goals
determine strategies to use
assess effectiveness of chosen strategies
evaluate their understanding of the topic
Aspects of learning with computer environments
constructivist models of learning
extended with models of metacognition and self-regulated learning
foundational basis for the metaphor of computers as metacognitive tools
assist learners to accomplish cognitive tasks by supporting cognitive processes
share the cognitive load by supporting lower level cognitive skills so that learners may focus on higher level skills
allow learners to engage in activities that would be out of their reach otherwise because they would not be able to participate
allow learners to generate and test hypotheses
should follow Mayer's (2003) proposal for the scientific investigation of how people learn with environments.
Research needs to establish a base of replicated findings. It should include evidence, theory and applications.
Introduction to a special issue of Educational Psychologist.
bring together cognitive scientist, psychologists and educational researchers
synthesize and advance understanding of the role of metacognition and self-regulated learning related to using computers as metacognitive tools for enhancing student learning
Address five issues
Provide an overview of the context in which computer learning environments are used to study and foster students' learning
Provide an overview of their theoretical-conceptual framework and underlying assumptions
review and summarize the findings from their own studies
describe effectiveness in detecting, tracing and monitoring learners' behaviors during learning
discuss implications for the design of metacognitive tools to support learning
assess whether their existing framework can be extended into a unifying framework for studying the phases and areas of learning with computer environments
Audience are educators, cognitive scientists, psychologists and researchers.
Overview of Articles
Describes a model of SRL consisting of 30 planning, cognitive and metacognitive self-regulatory process to account for the difficulties students experience when using hypermedia to learn about challenging science topics.
White and Frederiksen
provide a theoretical framework and approach to fostering metacognitive development by having students take on various roles which mimic experts.
Quintana, Zhang and Krajcik
proposes a framework for supporting metacognitive aspects of online inquiry through software-based scaffolding. The framework focuses on task understanding and planning, monitoring and regulation and reflection.
Graesser, McNamara and Van Lehn
present several approaches to scaffolding student's learning
modeling and coaching students
Lin, Schwartz and Hatano
contrasts conventional uses of metacognition in academic domains with the kinds of metacognition required by the teaching profession.
how computers can give teachers a set of experiences with specific classroom events where decision making is required.
Mathan and Koedinger
how do students monitor their ongoing performance?
model incorporates error detection and correction as part of the task
"Several researchers have recently questioned the educational potential of such computer environments because of students' failure to show learning gains." (Azevedo 2005 p. 194)
The purpose of the special edition was to bring together several different researchers with the goal to "define the emergence of a new paradigm" (p 194) for using computers as metacognitive tools for enhancing student learning.