Changing urban systems (Centripetal population movements (Gentrification…
Changing urban systems
Centripetal population movements
Lee's model of Migration
lack of infrastructure
access to services
more access to services (health, education, etc)
the process of people moving from rural areas to cities
The improvement of housing in an area that was formerly poor and run-down.
As the standard of the housing improves so does the wealth of the neighbourhood. This, in turn, attracts different kinds of business - shops and services with a more up-market appeal.
not everyone necessarily benefits from gentrification.
House prices increase rapidly, pricing out less affluent local people.
Rents are increased by private landlords to drive out low-cost tenants and attract higher-income tenants.
Increasing social division as existing communities feel powerless to influence changes
Places where their was the process of gentrification
Urban areas become renovated, refurbished and improved at little cost to the local authorities.
Affluent residents are attracted back to the central city reversing decades of out-migration.
There is increased custom for inner-city businesses and retailers.
Declining communities are revived with an increase in users for libraries, schools, clinics and voluntary groups.
Centrifugal population movements
A population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in the formation of urban sprawl.
200 YEARS OF URBAN SPRAWL IN PARIS, SAO PAULO AND LOS ANGELES
Accelerating rapidly during the second half of the twentieth century;
Paris metropolitan area sprawls out over more than 6,600 square miles, São Paulo over more than 3,000 square miles, and metro L.A. over nearly 4,900 square miles;
Cities have grown bigger and the world has urbanized, densities have been steadily falling;
Cities require more urban land per person, meaning total growth in the city area is much greater than population growth.
A process involving the movement of population away from larger urban areas to rural areas
Likely reasons for counter-urbanization
High land prices
High crime rates
A lack of community
Smaller and medium sized towns are growing at a faster rate
Strong trend in Western Europe