Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in small ruminants (What (Chronic…
Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in small ruminants
Chronic poisoning that is caused by toxic plant and lead to hepatic failure
Exp of toxic plant - Senecio, crotalaria, Amsinckia
Most common source of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning small ruminants are from Senecio genus plants.
Young growing animals, cattle, horse, farmed deer and pigs are the most susceptible
Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloid is ingested
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids produce hepatic megalocytosis due to interference in cell division.
Hepatic megalocytes formed within weeks of ingestion and it is irreversible.
Frequent ingestion of this toxic plant cause cumulative hepatic damage.
Sheep and goat liver susceptible to copper toxicity.
Hepatic megalocytosis lead to failure in copper metabolization by liver.
Copper accumulate in liver.
Stored copper released into bloodstream.
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Clinical signs and Lesions
edematous distended with thick mucoid bile
Enlarged,hemorrhagic, icteric (acute)
Atrophy, fibrous, finely nodule pale with glistening surface (chronic)
Treatment and Prevention
Proper grazing management
Chemical herbicides and biological control of Senecio plants
Breeds of goats or sheep less likely to eat the plant (Breed Selection)
Prevent further absorption of pyrrolizidine alkaloid
Removal of copper using molybdenum and sulphate
Supportive and nonspecific treatment (depend on clinical signs)
Zinc sulphate reduce liver cirrhosis
No specific antidote for pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity