Why did Henry Break with Rome in 1534? (Because he realised he could…
Why did Henry Break with Rome in 1534?
Because he wanted a male heir
Needs to break with rome so he can divorce Catherine of Aragon as Mary I couldnt be crowned monarch and she reached menopause- no children. BUT he couldnt because wolsey failed to get one due to the fact Charles V sacked rome and kept the pope captive- sent campeggio on behalf of pope- so couldnt get one.
Needs a male heir to secure the tudor dynasty- fearful that it will collapse if he doesn't have a male heir- much like war of the roses with Henry VII. I
In 1527- Anne Boleyn sent love letters- so chance of male heir is offered if Boleyn could be queen- it would be a legitimate heir if marriage happens. 1533- Boleyn becomes pregnant- divorce proceedings pick up pace- and anne and henry get secretly married by Cranmer
His dad had ended the War of the Roses and this made a very real threat from other Pretenders to the Throne - Lambert Simnall for example
Because he was under the influence of Anne Boleyn and her Supporters
Duke of Norfolk- sent letters to Henry January 1531 about the importance of the kings supremacy and undermining the pope's
1527 Anne Boleyn sent love letters to Henry- offering chance of male heir in return for being queen. Boleyn was young and had fertility and became pregnant in 1533 so had chance of having male heir
Anne Boleyn was raised in the French Courts- so gives her a connection with the House of Versailles and Europe.
Anne Boleyn Faction was a hope for reformist in parliament as it provided an obvious symbol against the conservative arroganese faction.
Anne Boleyn sent The Obedience of the Christian Man to Henry as a gift to try and encourage him to sympathise with her Humanist beliefs.
The Desire to Reform the Corrupt Catholic Church
Henry was under pressure from Humanist and Clerical Reformist Groups such as Tyndale and Thomas Starkey and Thomas More's Utopia
The Hunne Case- Richard hunne was a merchant tailor who's baby died in march 1511- the priest asked for his baby's christening robe as a mortuary fee but hunne refused. in November 1511- he was involved in a property dispute with the parish priest and priest took him to court. 1514- he was arrested as a lollards bible was discovered in his house- found dead in a cell- initial reaction= he killed himself, BUT it looked like he had been murdered- during trial he only had refused to pay mortuary fee, but he had denied transubstantiation. His body was burned. 1515- concluded he had been murdered- to protect clerical privileges- hunne was considered a martyr by his supporters.
Practices- like simony, nepotism, pluralism and absenteeism. Tithes and mortuary fees (money paid to clergy for burials)
Clergy were disobeying vows of Chasity and some were married and had children. Submission of the clergy in 1532 made sure clergy couldnt pass laws and henry only could or they had to have consent from the king.
Wolsey's downfall- praemunire. Accusations of purposely failing to secure divorce fro Henry in Blackfriars Court. Boleyn faction attacking Wolsey. 1536- dissolution of monasteries- closing down corrupt monasteries
Lutheran and Lollard criticisms of practices in transubstantiation, confession etc.
However, Criticisms of the Church were relatively rare mainly focussed in SE of England & wool town (against)
Because he realised he could increase his own political control over England
Regain control of the church and laws and the court
The Submission of the Clergy Act in 1532- meant henry could pass laws not the clergy or he had to give consent to laws clergy were passing
The Oath of Succession- everyone had to swear an oath in 1534 to state the illegitimacy of Mary I .
Act of Supremacy in 1534-legally made Henry the head of the church
Arguments put by Tyndale in the Obedience of the Christian Man- justifying henry's supremacy and Cromwell's Collectantia Satis Copiosa
The Act for the Restraint of Appeals March 1533- forbade all appeals to pope in Rome on all matters - making the king the final legal authority in all such matters in England
The Act to Remove Annates 1534- stooped the payment of Annates to Rome- meant more money for the King?
Other acts of 1534- an act that granted the right to elect bishops and abbots to the king. Also there was an act that made appeals from the church courts to go straight to the king- so confirmed the supreme legal authority of the secular courts
Act forbidding papal dispensation and payment of the Peter's Pence 1534- prevented payment of annual tax to rome
Because he was following popular opinion as expressed by the Reformation Parliament
Legitimate argument that the king can restore himself as the head of the church by political tradition
Cromwell and Cranmer- 2 significant characters believe that the king should be the supreme leader of the church.
Oath of Sucession 1534 removes mary from the throne as legitimate heir
the loss of gradual power in the Aragonese factions.
Power and influence of Thomas Cromwell in Henry VIII’s parliament - Cromwell’s connections to Lutheran movements coming from Calais
Cromwell, who was Lord Great Chamberlain, promoted foreign policy with the Schmalkaldic League, which was a military alliance between Protestant states, dedicated to protecting themselves from the Holy Roman Empire.
Cromwell promoted evangellical religion (a movement in protestantism) and pushed for the growing importance of the Act of the Ten Articles and an English translation of the Bible, and the dissolution of the Monasteries’ funds. Not all desires were followed through, but many of his ideas did influence Henry.
Careerism of Cromwell after the collapse of the influence of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey.
Edward Hall’s Chronicle and the popularity for the popular reoform by Bishops