Why did Henry Break with Rome in 1534?
Why did Henry Break with Rome in 1534?
Because he was under the influence of Anne Boleyn and her Supporters
Duke of Norfolk- sent letters to Henry January 1531 about the importance of the kings supremacy and undermining the pope's
1527 Anne Boleyn sent love letters to Henry- offering chance of male heir in return for being queen. Boleyn was young and had fertility and became pregnant in 1533 so had chance of having male heir
Anne Boleyn was raised in the French Courts- so gives her a connection with the House of Versailles and Europe.
Anne Boleyn Faction was a hope for reformist in parliament as it provided an obvious symbol against the conservative arroganese faction.
Anne Boleyn sent The Obedience of the Christian Man to Henry as a gift to try and encourage him to sympathise with her Humanist beliefs.
The Desire to Reform the Corrupt Catholic Church
Henry was under pressure from Humanist and Clerical Reformist Groups such as Tyndale and Thomas Starkey and Thomas More's Utopia
The Hunne Case- Richard hunne was a merchant tailor who's baby died in march 1511- the priest asked for his baby's christening robe as a mortuary fee but hunne refused. in November 1511- he was involved in a property dispute with the parish priest and priest took him to court. 1514- he was arrested as a lollards bible was discovered in his house- found dead in a cell- initial reaction= he killed himself, BUT it looked like he had been murdered- during trial he only had refused to pay mortuary fee, but he had denied transubstantiation. His body was burned. 1515- concluded he had been murdered- to protect clerical privileges- hunne was considered a martyr by his supporters.
Practices- like simony, nepotism, pluralism and absenteeism. Tithes and mortuary fees (money paid to clergy for burials)
Clergy were disobeying vows of Chasity and some were married and had children. Submission of the clergy in 1532 made sure clergy couldnt pass laws and henry only could or they had to have consent from the king.
Wolsey's downfall- praemunire. Accusations of purposely failing to secure divorce fro Henry in Blackfriars Court. Boleyn faction attacking Wolsey. 1536- dissolution of monasteries- closing down corrupt monasteries
Because he realised he could increase his own political control over England
Regain control of the church and laws and the court
The Submission of the Clergy Act in 1532- meant henry could pass laws not the clergy or he had to give consent to laws clergy were passing
The Oath of Succession- everyone had to swear an oath in 1534 to state the illegitimacy of Mary I .
Act of Supremacy in 1534-legally made Henry the head of the church
Arguments put by Tyndale in the Obedience of the Christian Man- justifying henry's supremacy and Cromwell's Collectantia Satis Copiosa
Because he was following popular opinion as expressed by the Reformation Parliament
Legitimate argument that the king can restore himself as the head of the church by political tradition
Cromwell and Cranmer- 2 significant characters believe that the king should be the supreme leader of the church.
Oath of Sucession 1534 removes mary from the throne as legitimate heir
the loss of gradual power in the Aragonese factions.
Because he wanted a male heir
Needs to break with rome so he can divorce Catherine of Aragon as Mary I couldnt be crowned monarch and she reached menopause- no children. BUT he couldnt because wolsey failed to get one due to the fact Charles V sacked rome and kept the pope captive- sent campeggio on behalf of pope- so couldnt get one.
Needs a male heir to secure the tudor dynasty- fearful that it will collapse if he doesn't have a male heir- much like war of the roses with Henry VII. I
In 1527- Anne Boleyn sent love letters- so chance of male heir is offered if Boleyn could be queen- it would be a legitimate heir if marriage happens. 1533- Boleyn becomes pregnant- divorce proceedings pick up pace- and anne and henry get secretly married by Cranmer