Key spiritual beliefs, religious doctrine and practice:
Most believed in original sin, that we are born sinful, as well as that every day we sin and must perform acts of penance to cleanse our souls. Those that could relied upon indulgences to cleanse soul, any sins forgiven through confession would be further forgiven if money donated, or an act of penance performed. Wealthier people would sometimes pay for people to go on pilgrimages for them. Saying prayers for the dead, and donating money were both examples of 'good works' which would help secure a way into the afterlife. Being able to go to heaven due to good works was known as 'justification'. E.g. Christopher Seel, chanter of York who did a lot of good works was portrayed on stain glass window in Church of York. Pilgrimages were another example of a good work, e.g. visiting Thomas á Becket's shrine in Canterbury (later the victim of iconoclasm). Thomas Cromwell once joked there were so many relics of the cross that you could 're-build Noah's arc.'
7 sacraments were important throughout people's lives. Transubstantiation was a key part of mass that occurred in the Christian faith.