Reading Map #7 - Pauline Muljana
Reading Map #7 - Pauline Muljana
Teach learning strategies early rather than waiting for students' mastery level on the subject. When strategies are taught early, students will more likely apply early. If it works, they will use it again and thus increase their efficacy and achievement. If it doesn't work, they still has time to alter their strategies (under teacher's guidance) before it's too late.
When designing instructions, it is important to present the materials such a way to trigger students' interests, to give learning choices, and to increase the task challenges incrementally. Don't merely give rewards generously.
Assign tasks by increasing the challenge incrementally. Easy task in the beginning may enhance students' self-efficacy. More challenging tasks in the later stage requires more mental efforts and thus can lead to higher performance. Students may also feel rewarding from achieving a new challenge.
Similar to the feedback types, rewards should be granted with a careful thought according to the context. Effort feedback can be provided more frequently early in the learning process to boost self-efficacy. Then, performance/ability feedback should be given to show students' progress and confirm their ability as they develop skills. Performance rewards can boost intrinsic motivation if they are not conducted in a controlling manner. Instead, these rewards should be administered to inform where the progress is, how good it is and suggested steps to improve.
Specify learning goals and also objectives. While learning goals help students see the big picture about the course, the learning objectives (particularly included in each module) can serve as proximal goals to aid students to reflect on their learning gap and progress. Learning objectives should be spelled out according to Bloom's Taxonomy to convey the expected performance outcomes.
Teacher should learn to be self-regulated in order to be able to make a good role model to students' self-regulation. When teachers have self-regulation, it can be reflected on their teaching style. There is a need on further studies related to pre-service and in-service teachers' self-regulation.
Self-Efficacy and Academic Motivation (Schunk, 1991)
One type of academic motivation, self-efficacy, defined as individual's judgments of his or her capabilities to perform given actions (Schunk, 1991, p. 207).
Expectations and values
Atkinson (1957), Eccles (1983), and Vroom (1964)
Expectations to achieve an outcomes as a result of performing a behavior
It goal is attractive and doable, people are motivated.
How valuable those outcomes are
Doesn't guarantee learning motivation.
There's a need of balance between outcome values and students' own belief in their capabilities.
Heider (1958), Kelley & Michela (1980), and Weiner (1985)
Students seek to explain the causes of outcomes
Students use attribution as a factor to appraise efficacy. Students who achieve an outcome through difficult tasks and efforts tend to have higher self-efficacy.
Self-perceptions which are a result of a combination of prior experiences, interpretation and the environment. It's heavily influenced by reinforcements and evaluations by significant others.
Consists of self-esteem, self-confidence, stability , and self-crystallization.
Doesn't guarantee students' confidence in all academic areas, but it depends on each context.
Rotter's (1966) locus of control
External control (due to external factors, e.g. luck, chance, or fate.
Internal control (controlling their own actions)
Skinner and colleagues (1998, 1990)
Agency or capacity beliefs
Focuses on the acquisition
Focuses on independent efforts
Means-end or strategy beliefs
Focuses on the outcomes
Related but separable when outcomes are not linked with performance quality
Doesn't guarantee learning motivation. There's a need of balance between self-efficacy and performance outcomes according to students' efforts
Research and Substantive Issues
Specific performance goals are better than general goals.
Easy goals may increase efficacy and motivation in the beginning. Difficult goals can guide students to better or advanced skill acquisition.
Proximal goal is better than distant goal because students can judge their progress temporally.
Goal proximity may influence self-regulation. Thus, further research on this can reveal how students with distant goals self-regulate themselves.
Self-efficacy on cognitive process can affect motivation and learning
Self-efficacy, mental effort, and achievement are correlated positively in text learning, but correlated negatively in TV learning (Salomon, 1984). Learning from TV can be efficacious but required less effort and thus achieved lower performance.
Learning strategies may influence self-efficacy and motivation (Corno & Mandinach, 1983). Also, self-efficacy is associated positively to motivation to use learning strategies.
When a certain strategy is used to improve performance, it promotes efficacy and hence students will more likely use the strategy again.
Teaching students to use learning strategies (e.g. by showing model strategy and promoting the use of this strategy) also increase self-efficacy and achievement.
Observing models are beneficial on efficacy and motivation, resulting in high persistence and high confidence that can promote motivation (Zimmerman & Ringle, 1981; Relich, Debus, & Walker, 1986).
Observing multiple models is better than observing one model because students will tend to view their similarity with at least one model (Schunk, 1987).
Self-modeling is also beneficial in terms of monitoring progress in skill development which results in higher self-efficacy.
If given early on during the learning process, it may increase self-efficacy and motivate students to work hard (make more effort) to succeed (Schunk & Cox, 1986).
Once students have demonstrated progressed skills, ability feedback is used.
Rewards linked with accomplishment and reflecting progress enhance efficacy.
Enhance motivation, self-efficacy, and skill
Performance-contingent rewards + proximal goals = highest efficacy and learning among children (Schunk, 1984).
Self-efficacy predicts motivational outcomes.
Self-efficacy predict motivation and achievement.
What deserve further research
When external influences are heavily used, efficacy doesn't predict persistence.
In a learning environment where students have achieved high skills, self-efficacy doesn't always predict persistence.
Cognitive effort and academic motivation
Learning strategies during learning process and academic motivation
The role of self-efficacy in transferring motivation and learning across different contexts
The role of self-efficacy in the relationship between goal orientation and motivation
The role of self-efficacy to fostering students' motivation
The association between teacher's efficacy and student motivation
Extrinsice Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation in Education: Reconsidered Once Again (Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 2001) --> Meta-analysis
A Review of Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET)
Rewards and external factors have impact on intrinsic motivation since it may enhance perceived competence and self-determination.
Explicit positive performance feedback
Less effective in increasing intrinsic motivation compared to informational positive feedback
Tend to be controlling feedback, but can be conducted via different contingencies
Rewards for simply participating
No effect on intrinsic motivation
Given upon completion of a task or activity
Engagement-contingent rewards may undermine intrinsic motivation due to controlling aspect
Completion-contingent rewards would also undermine intrinsic motivation. The controlling aspect is stronger than engagement-contingent rewards.
Given upon successful performance on an activity
It the feedback doesn't reflect good-quality performance, the rewards may undermine intrinsic motivation. It also depends on the context of how the rewards are administered (e.g. if interpersonal context is demanding and controlling)
Verbal rewards can enhance intrinsic motivation.
These rewards tend to impact on older persons' intrinsic motivation positively than on children's. Also, if the rewards are administered in a controlling manner, these can have a negative effect.
Tangible rewards undermine intrinsic motivation
These rewards have negative effect on children than on college students, especially on persistence and preference for challenge.
Do not significantly undermine intrinsic motivation
Undermine intrinsic motivation
Undermine intrinsic motivation
Undermine intrinsic motivation, worse on children
Can enhance intrinsic motivation if administered informationally
Can have negative effect if conducted in a controlling manner.
If used as a direct function of performance (e.g. in which participants receive unequal rewards), it may negatively affect intrinsic motivation
Rewards do not add interest value. "... the issue is how to facilitate people's understanding the importance of the activity to themselves and thus internalizing its regulation so they will be self- motivated to perform it" (Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 2001, p. 15)
Facilitate interesting learning activities, provide learning choices, and challenging task rather than giving rewards generously.
Teachers should be mindful about when and how to use rewards so that intrinsic motivation can be enhanced, rather than undermined.