"In many educational contexts, researchers (Calhoun, 1994; Carson & Sumara, 1997; McKernan, 1996; Sagor, 1992) promote action research to foster teacher development and educational change. However, these researchers conceptualize and implement action research in a variety of ways. For example, Noffke (1997) describes the personal, professional, and political purposes of action research. Calhoun (1994) describes three types of action research: individual, collaborative, and school‐wide. Rearick and Feldman (1999) offer a more elaborate framework for conceptualizing action research based on three dimensions: theoretical orientation (technical, practical, and emancipatory), purposes of the research (professional, personal, and political), and types of reflection (autobiographical, collaborative, and communal). Maruyama (1996) distinguishes between “practitioner‐centred” and “Lewinian” action research, with the former focused on the role of the practitioner and the latter primarily concerned with the generation of knowledge about teaching and learning." (Goodnough, 2008, p. 432)
Despite the variations in conceptions and pur‐ poses, action research usually involves a social practice that can potent‐ ially be improved – systematic inquiry into practice through cycles of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting; and direct involvement of those responsible for the practice (Grundy, 1982, as cited by Goodnough, 2008, p. 432)) QUOTED.