17th century Crisis and Rebuilding (30 years war.(1618-1648) (Shift in…
17th century Crisis and Rebuilding
How did 17th century European states overcome social and economic crisis to build strong states?
The Social Order and peasant Life
Peasants occupied lower tiers of a society
monarch occupied summit: semi-divine creature.
Catholic countries: clergy constituted first order of society. Next came nobles.
Merchants could never lay claim to highest honor due to Christian prejudices to money and commerce.
"Great chain of Being": linked god to his subjects in a series of ranked social groups.
Patriarchal society: Father ruled his family like King rules his domain
Vast majority lived in countryside.
Private landowning among peasants in western Europe compared to Eastern and Central Europe.
Famine and Economic Crisis
Crude technology and low crop yield =scarcity and famine
"Little ice Age": Colder and wetter climate throughout Europe in the 17th century.
Recurrent Famine reduced population significantly, reduced fertility, susceptibility to disease and starvation.
Output of Woolen textiles(most imp European manufactures) declined sharply.(1st half of 17th century.
High food prices, Stagnated wages and unemployment.
Moral economy: When community needs predominate over competition and profit
Riots broke out amongst peasants and urban poor. Women led the action (mothers). They were viewed with impunity.
European achievements in state-building.
30 years war.(1618-1648)
Shift in balance in population of Catholics and Protestants led to breakdown of Peace of Augsburg.
Lutheran- Protestant Union(1608)
and Catholic League(1609)
War began with conflict in Bohemia (part of modern day Czech-republic) Betw Catholic League and Protestant Union
Initial Catholic victories after which tide turned due to intervention by Sweden(under king Gustavus Adolphus and then France(to undermine Habsburg power)
The war ended in 1648 with The Peace of Westohalia.
The Augsburg agreement of 1555 became permanent adding Calvinism to Catholicism and Lutheranism.
North German states remained Protestant; south German Catholic.
The united provinces of the Netherlands, known as Dutch Republic won official freedom from Spain.
1/3 of urban residents and 2/5 of rural residents were decimated. Entire areas depopulated.
Trade in Southern Germany destroyed, farmers lost their land while nobles enlarged their estates.