The Social Learning Approach (Role of mediational processes (2. Retention …
The Social Learning Approach
Though he proposed that we also learn from observation & imitation of others.
Learning occurs directly - classical & operant, & indirectly.
Bandura agreed that behaviour is learnt.
Focuses not only on learning but also on mental processes.
Role of mediational processes
- how well behaviour is remembered, i.e. stored in LTM.
3. Motor reproduction
- ability of individual to perform behaviour.
- extent to which individual pay attention to behaviour.
- will to perform behaviour, often depends on whether rewarded or punished as individual expects same positive reinforcement as imitated from model.
First 2 relate to learning & last 2 relates to performance.
Individual may imitate behaviour after behaviour seen to be rewarded (reinforced) in the model.
More likely to imitate those we identify with, role models.
Person is a role model if they possess similar traits to observer or are attractive & or high status.
Role models doesn't have to be present in environment, therefore implications for influence of media.
Underestimates biological factors, e.g. Boys being more aggressive than girls explained by higher testosterone.
Explains cultural differences in behaviour as behaviour can't be learnt unless imitated.
Though supported by evidence, there are some limitations to study.
Demand characteristics - child may simply be behaving in a way thought was expected.
Less deterministic than behaviourist approach, Bandura suggests reciprocal determinism, where we are influenced but also exert influence on environment.
More complete explanation than classical or operant conditioning, though doesn't take free will into account.
Bobo doll experiment
Bandura et al
American, 36 boys & girls 3-6 years old.
Group 1: model hit with hammer & shouting to doll.
Group 2: model non-aggressive.
Group 3: not shown model.
12 girls & boys in each group.
Child taken to room with toys but told not to play.
Then taken to room with bobo doll, non-aggressive toys, e.g. pencils, & agressive toys, e.g. hammer.
Group 1 more aggressive & mimicked aggressive acts of model.
Boys imitated more physically aggressive acts than girls.
Bandura & Walters
Group 1: model praised.
Group 2: model punished.
Group 3: no consequence for aggressive behaviour.
Group 1 showed most aggression.
Then group 3 & lastly group 2.