The Period of Romanticism: New England Transcendentalism (the first half…
The Period of Romanticism: New England Transcendentalism (the first half of the 19th c)
father of American short stories; the first who won
First Am who lived his own art
humorous and fantasy world style
his basic themes have symbolic connotations and portray Am with its adventurous, beautiful and godly appearances along with their opposites.
Rip Van Winkle
Symbolically, Irving narrates the change that occurred in Am from British monarchy and colonialism to Am government and democracy. Despite this dichotomy, this short story exemplifies the true Am spirit that is joyful, hardworking, nagging composed of good neighbors as well as some evil-minded individuals
The Stout Gentleman
first major American novelist
The Last of the Mohicans
Bumppo is a frontier man whose actions are shaped by the forests. he exemplifies Am experience himself. Frontiers lived and struggled in Forests
The clash btw NA and F are intermingled with passages describing nature.
B’s friendship with Chingachgook is symbolic, for Chin symbolizes an indigenous life of Am. Their friendship because of their differences
The first poet who
roke away from the Puritan way of life
Treats death as a part of nature- it is only biological
If there is sth spiritual, it is to be found in nature
his black vision of life and human being
Young Goodman Brown
The Scarlet Letter
Wrote as moralist & interested in the minds & hearts of man & woman who knew they had done wrong.
alph Waldo *
the chief spokesman of Transcendentalism
Believed in ultimate unity of inanimate beings & oversoul
people should “thrust thyself. Every heart vibrates to that iron string.” He completed by saying that “a man has to be non-conformist.”
nature writing- talent of Romantic Movement--- celebrates beauty- god=oversoul
ach & All**
unity is imp= empirical proof. He brings these beauties to his home but they are not natural habitats in his home. Everything is beautiful in its place. He realized that it is not possible to bring nature to his home. - transcendentalist thought
His poems are about men & nature
free verse poetry basing on the irregular rhythmic cadence
no conventional use of meter, rhyme may or may not be present.
Leaves of Grass
His vision of sexuality is dif. He is tolerant.
O captain my captain
Noiseless Patient Spider
spider is making her web and continuously does her work to catch his pray to eat & survive. But he can’t do anything. He is aimless, unlike the spider. Second stanza- extended metaphor. He seeks for his existence. His soul needs to establish that anchor.
Dearest Thou Now, O Soul
Henry David Thoreau
a fiercest enemy of Am commercial life.
Edgar Allan Poe
father of American detective stories
the first Am literary critic
against industry& traditional writing
his writings influenced Europe for the first time
his poems are melodious and dramatic
His short stories are original because they lack structured plots. Rather than a strong plot, he emphasizes estrangements, disappointments, silence, and oblivion.
Mixes rapid rhythms with milder and peaceful sounds
Makes use of the vowel sounds heavily
magical realism—knocking door brings terror to him. He is afraid. But there’s no one at the door. Reality vs magic. He’s confused and helpless like an old man. He asks the Raven if there’s hope to get out and the answer is “no”.
The Mask of the Red Death
in the opening line, he openly writes what the Red death is about. He is impressionistic (the effect on the soul). Because its aim is to create a definite impression mood in the reader’s mind.
The Cask of Amontillado
Story of murder- no bloodshed, no aware- murder without murderer & victim.
The Purloined Letter
the story of a struggle against the forces of nature. Captain Ahab loses one of his legs due to a white whale. For revenge, he tries to find the whale to kill it.
death and immortality
Her poems are closed texts
Her poems are short-many of them- single image/ symbol- lack punctuation because she didn’t prepare her texts for publication. So, it is dif to suggest a meaning for her poems- that is why it is v dif to reach a consciousness on positive meanings of her lines.
Was a woman of reclusive
To Make a Prairie
I’m Nobody! Who Are You?
A Service of Song
I Never Saw a Moor