Medication Administration (Oral Medications: (take care to prevent…
take care to prevent aspiration.
place the dropper or syringe along the side of the infant's tongue and administer the liquid slowly.
use an empty nipple to deposit liquid medication.
give child an ice pop or small ice to numb the tongue before giving the drug.
mix the drug with a small amount of a sweet tasting substance.
give a "chaser" of water, juice, a soft drink, or ice pop frozen juice bar after the drug.
if nausea is a problem, give a carbonated beverage poured over finely crushed ice before or immediately after the medication.
when medication has an unpleasant taste, have the child pinch the nose and drink the medicine through a straw.
Intradermal, subcutaneous, and IM injections:
only used when other routes cannot be used.
primary site is vastus lateralis muscle.
deltoid muscle: for children who are 18 months or older as a site for IM injections and also in infants who are receiving their hepatitis B vaccine
if time permits, apply EMLA, a local anesthetic cream, to the injection site at least 1 hour before the injection.
have someone available to help gently restrain the child.
for vastus lateralis or deltoid muscle choose a needle length that is approximately half the distance between the thumb and index finger.
needle length should allow for a small portion of the needle to be exposed at the skin surface
with the ventrogluteal site, grasp only subcutaneous tissue, so choose a needle length that is slightly more than half the distance
medication is immediately distributed.
with consecutive doses, predictable drug levels and maintenance of therapeutic effects are possible.
after initial insertion, IV administration is more comfortable.
a superficial scalp vein is commonly used in infants younger than 9 months of age.
an infusion line may be converted to a saline lock
Pediatric medication administration:
“six rights” of medication administration
methods of calculating dosages for children consider age, body weight, and body surface area (BSA).
assess and document the child's response to the drug.
Ocular, Otic, and Nasal Administration:
Gaining children's cooperation, the child may need to be restrained.
place drops in the nasal corner where the lids meet.
If both eye ointment and eye drops are ordered, give drops first, wait 3 minutes, and then apply the ointment
When possible, administer eye ointments before bedtime or nap time.
children 3 years of age and younger, downward and back, children older than 3 years of age, pull the pinna upward and back.
For nasal administration, position the child with the head hyperextended