Ethnicity and educational achievement (The Curriculum (British education…
Ethnicity and educational achievement
Hammersley found that even though some teachers were racist in their private lives, they didn't bring into the classroom.
Fuller studied black girls and found that those who had been labelled negatively were more likely to reject the label and work harder in school.
Mac an Ghaill found there was no clear relationship between parents who expected to fail and those who had experienced racism.
'Colour-blind'- see no issue with education system and don't recognise the racism as believe everyone is equal.
Liberal chauvinists- believe black students are culturally deprived which is why don't perform well.
Overt racists- White students are superior in the education system.
The majority of teachers hold some form of racist attitudes towards students
Teacher attitudes (Gillborn and Youdell)
Teachers hold 'racialized expectations' of black students and treat them more negatively because they expect them to be more difficult within the classroom.
British education focuses on Christianity more so than other religions.
What's taught in schools disadvantages ethnic minorities.
Teaching from a white, middle-class point of view and ignoring cultural differences.
Curriculum is ethnocentric
Content of education ignores black people.
They said that governing bodies within education made up of: white/middle class/middle aged/ public community workers so ethnic inequalities in education are given low priority. So education system is ethnocentric.
Chinese and Indian students thought to place emphasis on education and having positive attitudes towards education.
Gillborn- schools are institutionally racist. Teachers interpret policy in a way that disadvantages black pupils.
Researchers suggested pupils from different ethnic minorities treated differently by teacher and other pupils. This has been proven to have negative impact on Afro-Caribbean boys.
Often language barrier with Asian students whose first language isn't English. BUT Driver and Ballard argued doesn't impact educational attainment, language development of 16 year olds similar regardless of first language.
Modood argues performance of Indian pupils indicates language barriers don't impact educational attainment and any language disadvantage is overcome.
Social class and ethnicity
Afro-Caribbean students- 5x more likely to be expelled from school than any other ethnic group. 1.5x more likely to be identified with behavioural issues. Disproportionately put in bottom sets. Much less likely than average to be identified as gifted and talented.
White working class families- Low level of aspiration amongst white-working class pupils, may reflect limited parental support. Street culture may have an impact on pupils as are distracted by other activities and therefore not prioritising education.
Basit- Conducted research into attitudes on education in British Asian families. Viewed free state education as blessing offered more opportunities than in their countries of origin. Tended to put more effort into helping their children- even poorer families had managed to overcome material deprivation issues in order to help their children.
Cultural Capital- British Chinese students perform best in British Education system. Linking to support received from parents- parents of Chinese students place extremely high value on education.
Gillborn and Mirza (2000) Strong relationship between social class and achievement in all ethnic groups. African Caribbean students perform worse than their peers, even when social class is taken into account.
Those from ethnic minority groups have above average chance of living in poverty and suffer from material deprivation.
Group within a population regarded by themselves as culturally distinctive. This can be linked to nationality or racial differences between groups. They may share practices or beliefs (e.g. religion).