Waste 1: Intro to Solid Waste (Introduction (Because plastics come from…
Waste 1: Intro to Solid Waste
Because plastics come from oil, they have a C footprint associated w them
Plastic production uses 4–8% of global oil production, i.e. 4% as
feedstock and 4% during conversion – Green house gas emission
Industrial wastes are easier to deal with than MSWs.
Plastics major component of MSW – non biodegradable in many cases
Pulp and paper - fresh pulp (right from tree)
Upon 4th time recycling paper, it’s problematic (rashes in toilet paper)
250Kg of waste per year per individual in world (1990 value) by 2000 this doubled
Probably up to 700kg per year per individual now
250 x 106 metric tonnes of municipal solid waste in EU per annum with an increase of 3% per year
Up to 45% of waste should be recyclable - dense/film plastics, textiles/glass/wood, metal and scrap.
Waste Cycle and Issues
Recycling considered sustainable however must be integrated into waste management to provide more sustainable use of energy and material
(i) waste generation
(ii) waste handling, sorting , processing at the source – most important
Sorting wastes can take up a lot of time and energy, and make it not sustainable.
(iv) separation and processing
(v) transfer station handling and waste transport
all carbon footprint - consider distance to recycling area
could be ash or char.
Must consider technical and economic feasibility
Product Life Cycle analysis v important
Charles Uni Czech Republic - analysis on solar photovoltaic cells - precious metals used cause CO2 production because of mining
New projects (esp if proposed to be “green”) must have this analysis carried out on it for it to be a serious environmental project
Considers ENTIRE life of product - can bring light to issues with “env friendly” products - energy going into recycling.
Integrated Waste Management
Using energy and materials to fuel one step back
Plastic Solid Waste Treatment
Mechanical (secondary): involves grindings, centrifuging, etc.
material recycling - involves physical treatment
Chemical (tertiary): Take plastic waste (e.g. PVC)
produces feedstock chemicals for the chemical industry
Energy recovery (quaternary): Dioxin and furane(?) production. Chlorinated compounds. Polymers. When burned, dioxins form. Problem is cytotoxins forming.
If chlorine removed, can be used for incineration/animal feedstock
Waste treatment facilities should be located strategically. Part of management.
complete or partial oxidation of the material that produces heat, power, gaseous fuels, oils and chars/ash