Global Migration SG2 (spatial patterns in flows of international migrants,…
Global Migration SG2
national migration policies are designed to meet the economic, social and political needs of a coutnry
countries can have both immigration and emigration. canada has an aging population so wants to control migration. introduced 'express entry' on Jan 1st to fast-track permanent residency
Mexicans provided the US with agricultural workers on a seasonal basis [5 million workers]. 10% of wages were held if the workers did not leave.
economic globalization and the emergence of new source areas and host destinations:
globalization has led to the global shift in manufacturing and the development of emerging economies these places need workers therefore become new destinations. the internet, social media, overseas study, opportunities and transport improvements made increased awareness of possible destinations
- in 2015 6.5 million people were displaced - this is the first time that the threshold of 60 million has been crossed
- 4x more displaced people than a decade ago
- number of refugees have increased due to wars, the largest flow of refugees are coming from Syria. the refugees are going to Turkey - because of the opportunities
- afghanistan: 51
- mexico: 75
- usa: 80
- afghanistan: 38%
- mexico: 95%
- usa: 98%
extra information on Mexico:
HDI matches the global average, suggesting good life expectancy. however, almost 50% of the population are under the poverty line. Mexico has a net emigration loss -
- more than 11% of the native population live abroad.
- it is estimated 10,000 people try to smuggle themselves over the Mexico/US border every week & 1 in 3 get caught.
the demographic composition of international migrants
- in 2015 72% of international migrants = 20 - 64
- median age for migrants in 2015 = 42
- 49% migrants = women = growing opportunities
Immigration and Nationality Act:
a quota on the number of migrants allowed into the UK - 2 year waiting period for US visa, so illegal border crossings continued.
Bracero Program ended so many jobless and displaced Mexicans in border towns. the Mexican government gave incentives leading to US owned factories setting-up in border towns. Mexicans migrated here for jobs, but the lure of US led to increased illegal border crossings. [13,000 factories located in Mexican border towns owned by US].
Immigration Reform and Control Act:
2 million Mexicans were granted legal residence. fortification of borders [fencing, surveillance] - turned temporary migration into permanent.
free-trade agreement between Canada, Mexico and USA.
why do Mexicans migrate to Canada:
Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program [CSAWP] - federal initiative allows for the organised entry into Canada of low-mid skilled farmers for up to 8 months per year.
Mexico is a former Spanish colony - similar culture. however, EU financial crisis - unemployment rate for young professions in Spain reaches 25% in Mexico it is 4.8%.
US-Mexico Binational Group of Bridges and Border Crossing:
border officials from both countries work to maintain border infrastructure.
international boundary and water commission:
collaborating on issues regarding the Rio Grande - for ex. maintenance of dams and reservoirs; maintaining water quality; flood management etc.
fact-file for Hidalgo in Mexico -
- 80% of the population has a family in the US
- 400,000 returned last year according to the National Migration Institute = improved economy = population pressure.